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Quintessence Publishing: Journals: ORTHODONTICS
ORTHODONTICS
The Art and Practice of Dentofacial Enhancement

Formerly World Journal of Orthodontics

Edited by
Rafi Romano, DMD, MSc (Editor-in-Chief)

ISSN 2160-2999 (print) / ISSN 2160-3006 (online)

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Publication:
Fall 2010
Volume 11 , Issue 3

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Redefining Orthodontic Space Closure: Sequential Repetitive Loading of the Periodontal Ligament—A Clinical Study

Anmol S Kalha, BSc, BDS, MDS, Osre/Viral Ashok Kachiwala, BDS, MDS, MOrth RCS/Singatagere Nagaraj Govardhan, BDS, MDS/Richard P. McLaughlin, DDS/Syed Zameer Khurshaid, BDS, MDS

Pages: 221–229
PMID: 20877730

Aims: To assess the rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss, root resorption, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as a marker for bone remodeling during orthodontic space closure using two different mechanisms. Methods: Space closure was completed in 20 patients with extraction of all 4 premolars. Lateral cephalograms and radio–visiographs taken before (T1) and after (T2) space closure were assessed for anchorage loss and root resorption. Alkaline phosphatase levels were measured in 10 patients, which were divided into two groups of five each. Spaces were closed with a screw device in the first group and with active tie-backs in the second. Gingival crevicular fluid samples, collected at intervals, were assayed for alkaline phosphatase spectrophotometrically in each patient. Results: The mean rate of tooth movement was 1.32 ± 0.22 mm/month. The mean amount of anchorage loss in the maxilla and mandible was 1.23 ± 0.60 mm and 1.08 ± 0.65 mm, respectively. Sixty (25%) roots showed no root resorption, while 180 (75%) roots displayed mild to moderate blunting of their apices. Gingival crevicular fluid–alkaline phosphatase level increased significantly from day 7 to day 28 in both groups, but significantly more in the screw retraction group (P < .05). Conclusion: It is possible to infer that space closure occurs more rapidly with sequential repetitive loading of the periodontal ligament than with conventional active tie-backs. This observation is in concurrence with a significant increase in the gingival crevicular fluid–alkaline phosphatase level. World J Orthod 2010;11:221–229.

Key words: space closure, periodontal ligament, alkaline phosphatase, root resorption, anchorage loss

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