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Quintessence Publishing: Journals: QI
Quintessence International

Edited by Eli Eliav

ISSN 0033-6572 (print) • ISSN 1936-7163 (online)

Publication:
June 1991
Volume 22 , Issue 6

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The superior labial frenum: a histologic observation

Gartner/Schein

Pages: 443-445
PMID: 1882036

Superior labial frena obtained from cadavers or frenectomies were examined histologically. The frena were covered by stratified squamous nonkeratotic, orthokeratotic, or parakeratotic epithelia, depending upon the gingival extent of the frenum. In addition to the normal c omponents of dense, irregular, collagenous connective tissue, almost all frena contained myelinated nerve fiber bundles and small vascular channels. Additionally, 35% of the frena examined contained a few small skeletal muscle fibers.

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