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Quintessence Publishing: Journals: QI
Quintessence International

Edited by Eli Eliav

ISSN 0033-6572 (print) • ISSN 1936-7163 (online)

November/December 2004
Volume 35 , Issue 10

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Secondary trauma from occlusion: Three-dimensional analysis using the finite element method

Allahyar Geramy, DDS, MSc/Sharieh Faghihi, DDS, MSc

Pages: 835-843
PMID: 15553295

Clinical effects of forces applied by dental occlusion on the periodontium have been evaluated for decades. Historically, trauma from occlusion has been considered as a major etiologic factor of inflammatory periodontal diseases, while some researchers have interpreted it to be of less importance or without any detectable importance in periodontics. In this study, five three-dimensional models of a maxillary central incisor were created using ANSYS 5.40. The only difference in each model was the height of the alveolar bone that showed from normal height (13 mm of alveolar bone height) to 8 mm of alveolar bone loss (5 mm of alveolar bone height). Five-point forces of 0.3 N summing up to 1.5 N were applied in a parallel line, 1 mm apical to the incisal edge on the palatal side in a palatolabial direction. The maximum (S1) and minimum (S3) principal stresses in the nodes of the labial side of the periodontal ligament (apical to the alveolar crest) were assessed. Analysis was done using the finite element method. An increase of S1 (up to 16 times in the cervical and 11.25 times in the apical area) and S3 (up to 17.13 times in the cervical and 9.9 times in the apical area) in comparison to the normal model was shown. The highest stress levels were traced in the subcervical area, except for the last model (8 mm of the alveolar bone loss). According to the results of this study, 2.5 mm of alveolar bone loss can be considered as a limit beyond which stress alterations were accelerated. Based on the FEM analysis, alveolar bone loss increases stress (S1 and S3) produced in the PDL, in spite of applying the same force vector.

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