The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes in a
10-year follow-up study of patients who previously completed
a 3-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of immediate
and early loading of dental implants with a hydrophilic and
chemically active surface (SLActive) in the posterior maxilla or
mandible. The patients received implants to replace at least
one missing tooth, with provisional restoration on the day of
surgery (immediate loading) or 28 to 34 days later (early loading).
Implant survival, change in crestal bone level, and patient satisfaction
were evaluated. In total, 56 patients (with 72 implants)
were available after 10 years and fulfilled the criteria for the
radiographic bone level evaluation. The mean crestal bone level
change from implant surgery to 10 years was –2.00 ± 1.19 mm and –1.37 ± 1.06 mm in the immediate and early groups, respectively.
The corresponding change between 5 to 6 months’
post-surgery (permanent fixed restoration placement) and
10 years was –1.25 ± 0.99 mm and –0.89 ± 1.11 mm in the immediate
and early groups. After the initial remodeling phase
(5 to 6 months) where the depth of implant placement had an
influence on the initial bone remodeling, no significant differences
between the two treatment groups were detected. Mean
implant survival was 97.6% (98.2% and 97.1% in the immediate
and early loading groups, respectively). Implants with the SLActive
surface show successful long-term outcomes following immediate
or early loading in posterior maxillae and mandibles.