Objective: A novel osteotome trifactorial classification system is proposed for transcrestal osteotome-mediated sinus floor elevation (OSFE) sites that includes residual bone height (RBH), sinus floor anatomy (contour), and multiple versus single sites OSFE (tenting).
Method and Materials: An analysis of RBH, contour, and tenting was retrospectively applied to a cohort of 926 implants placed using OSFE without added bone graft and followed up to 10 years. RBH was divided into three groups: high (RBH > 6 mm), mid (RBH = 4.1 to 6 mm), and low (RBH = 2 to 4 mm). The sinus contour was divided into four groups: flat, concave, angle, and septa. For tenting, single versus multiple adjacent OSFE sites were compared.
Results: The prevalence of flat sinus floors increased as RBH decreased. RBH was a significant predictor of failure with rates as follows: low- RBH = 5.1%, mid-RBH = 1.5%, and high-RBH = 0.4%. Flat sinus floors and single sites as compared to multiple sites had higher observed failure rates but neither achieved statistical significance; however, the power of the study was limited by low numbers of failures.
Conclusion: The osteotome trifactorial classification system as proposed can assist planning OSFE cases and may allow better comparison of future OSFE studies.
Keywords: classification, observational study, osteotome, retrospective, sinus elevation, transcrestal