The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is to completely restore the tooth’s supporting apparatus that has been lost due to inflammatory periodontal disease or injury. It is characterized by formation of new cementum with inserting collagen fibers, new periodontal ligament, and new alveolar bone. Indeed conventional, nonsurgical, and surgical periodontal therapy usually result in clinical improvements evidenced by probing depth reduction and clinical attachment gain, but the healing occurs predominantly through formation of a long junctional epithelium and no or only unpredictable periodontal regeneration. Therefore, there is an ongoing search for new materials and improved surgical techniques, with the aim of predictably promoting periodontal wound healing/regeneration and improving the clinical outcome. This article attempts to provide the clinician with an overview of the most important biologic events involved in periodontal wound healing/ regeneration and on the criteria on how to select the appropriate regenerative material and surgical technique in order to optimize the clinical outcomes.
Keywords: biology, enamel matrix proteins, furcation, guided tissue regeneration, periodontal regeneration