Objectives: Etiological periodontal therapy is effective in reducing cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth, but a high variability among subjects has been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the role of polymorphisms in PAI-1 and A BCB1 genes on the course of this side effect following periodontal therapy.
Method and Materials: Forty-five transplant patients were subjected to nonsurgical periodontal therapy and evaluated for hypertrophy index, probing depths, bleeding, and plaque scores at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. A BCB1 (C3435T and G2677T) and PAI-1 (4G/5G) polymorphisms were studied with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction respectively.
Results: All the monitored periodontal indexes decreased significantly during the six months. Modeling of hypertrophy index by linearmixed- effect models (allowing non-normal distribution of the outcome variable hypertrophy index) resulted in the selection as the most significant model, of the one comprising the independent variables: time, C 3435T genotype, and their interaction term. This model indicated that C 3435T-mutated patients had significantly higher baseline hypertrophy index values (90% Markov chain Monte C arlo empirical confidence intervals: 5.08, 30.00). The decrease in hypertrophy index values over time showed a trend toward being faster in mutated than nonmutated patients (interaction time: C 3435T nonmutated, 90% Markov chain Monte C arlo empirical confidence interval: -11.08, -0.40). When hypertrophy index values were normalized, the significance and trend were lost. No effect of the A BCB1 G2677T and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms was observed.
Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that C 3435T polymorphism is a genetic factor that could influence the course of cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth in transplant patients subjected to periodontal therapy.
Keywords: ABCB1 gene, gingival overgrowth, PAI-1 gene, polymorphism