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Quintessence Publishing: Journals: QI
Quintessence International

Edited by Eli Eliav

ISSN 0033-6572 (print) • ISSN 1936-7163 (online)

Publication:
May 2012
Volume 43 , Issue 5

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Potential surface alteration effects of laser-assisted periodontal surgery on existing dental restorations

Evren Kilinc, DDS, PhD/James Rothrock, BS/Erica Migliorati, DDS, MS/Saulius Drukteinis, DDS, MS/David M. Roshkind, DMD, MBA/Paul Bradley, DDS, MD, MS

Pages: 387-395
PMID: 22536590

Objective: Laser-assisted gingivectomies are performed in proximity to teeth, existing restorations, and implants. In case of accidental exposures, a detrimental surface defect may cause failure. Surface interactions should be evaluated for safety margin determination of certain laser-material combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the microscopic and visible effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode laser irradiations on various dental materials and tooth tissue. Method and Materials: Study samples were fabricated (10 × 7.5 mm irradiation surface area, 1 mm thickness) from eight material groups (amalgam, base metal, gold, palladium-silver, composite, ceramic, titanium, and extracted tooth slices). Laser irradiations were performed with CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode lasers using the manufacturer’s recommended settings for gingivectomy at a 45-degree angle for 30 seconds. Irradiated surfaces were evaluated under SEM at 200× and 1,000× magnifications. Standardized photographs were obtained using a camera mount system (10× high-definition macro lens). The SEM images and photographs were correlated to determine surface interactions. Results: Nd:YAG detrimentally affected all metallic materials and tooth structures. CO2 altered amalgam, gold, and palladium-silver slightly, whereas composite, ceramic, and tooth surfaces were detrimentally altered. The 810-nm diode altered amalgam, gold, titanium, palladium-silver, and composite but only gold and palladium-silver surfaces were barely traceable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, surface effects were all instant; therefore, even a short accidental exposure may be destructive in some laser-material combinations. During gingivectomies, CO2 near tooth-colored restorations and Nd:YAG near metallic restorations and implants should be used carefully. The 810-nm diode was found to be safer due to its reversible alterations in only some materials. Further in vivo studies are necessary to clinically apply the outcomes of this study. (Quintessence Int 2012;43:387–395)

Key words: dental materials, gingivectomy, soft tissue layers, surface

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