Dual-Etched Implants Loaded After 1- and 2-Month Healing Periods: A Histologic Comparison in Baboons
Arthur R. Vernino, DDS, Sean S. Kohles, PhD, Raleigh A. Holt, Jr, DMD, Hsuch-Ming Lee, DDS, MS, Richard F. Caudill, DMD, James N. Kenealy, PharmD
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of early loading of Osseotite dual acid-etched commercially pure titanium dental implants in an established baboon model. Implant sites were prepared by removal of premolars and first molars at maxillary and mandibular sites in 10 adult female baboons (Papio anubis). The resultant edentulous ridges were allowed to heal for 6 weeks. Following the placement of 80 implants, 2- mm healing abutments were placed on each implant and protruded through the mucosa after flap closure. Each implant was functionally loaded with a single crown after either 1 month (n = 40) or 2 months (n = 40) of implant healing. All implants were removed in block section after 3 months of functional loading and prepared for histologic evaluation. Photographs of histologic slides were digitized for data collection. The amount of osseous tissue contact along the implant surface in the buccolingual plane was determined using image analysis. The fraction of direct bone-tissue contact along a standardized region of each implant perimeter was calculated and compared using analysis of variance. Implants loaded after 1 month of healing had a mean of 76.6% ± 14.4% bone contact, and implants loaded after 2 months of healing had a mean of 77.2% ± 12.2% bone contact. Statistically, the 1- and 2-month groups were similar (P = .81). No implant failures were observed in either treatment group. Reducing the surgical healing time from 2 months to 1 month did not statistically affect the amount of bone observed at the tissue-implant interface in baboons under functionally loaded conditions.