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Volume 30 , Issue 1
January/February 2010

Pages 89-95

Influence of Implant Length, Diameter, and Geometry on Stress Distribution: A Finite Element Analysis

Eduardo Anitua, MD, DDS, PhD/Raul Tapia, MEng/Felipe Luzuriaga/Gorka Orive, PhD

PMID: 20224835
DOI: 10.11607/prd.00.0895

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the length, diameter, and geometry of Biotechnology Institute dental implants on stress distribution in bone. Three-dimensional finite element models of osseointegrated titanium dental implants were created for this study. A force of 150 N was applied at an angle of 30 degrees. The four implant systems used were: Tiny, Interna Universal, Interna Plus, and Interna Wide, and presented the following platforms: 3.5, 4.1, 4.1 (with a 4.8-mm neck), and 5.5 mm, respectively. Implant lengths of 8.5, 10.0, 11.5, 13.0, and 15.0 mm and diameters of 2.5, 3.3, 3.75, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 mm were evaluated. Results showed that the effect of implant diameter on stress distribution in bone was more significant than the effect of the implant’s length or its geometry. The maximum stress was located around the neck of the implant and the majority of the stress, independent of the parameter being studied, was distributed in the bone adjacent to the first six threads of the implant. Based on these finite element studies, the use of wider implants may be better to dissipate the acting forces and thus reduce the stress in the bone surrounding the implant. Additionally, the use of shorter and wider implants might be a reasonable alternative in sites limited by the height of the residual ridge. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2010;30:89–95.)

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