A clinical evaluation of hand and ultrasonic instruments on subgingival debridement. Part I. With unmodified and modified ultrasonic inserts
This clinical investigation evaluated the effect on subgingival surfaces of three instruments: hand instruments and ultrasonic instruments with modified and unmodified inserts. Ten operators (five dentists and five dental hygienists) performed randomly assigned operative procedures. Pocket depth, instrument limit, and instrument efficiency were evaluated for each type of instrument. The results indicated that there are advantages to using modified ultrasonic inserts for scaling and root planing.