The effect of citric acid application on periodontally involved root surfaces. II. An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study
The in vitro effect of citric acid application on periodontally involved root surfaces was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Teeth were selected following specific criteria. The specimens were prepared for observation, and the features of the root surface were studied. The results demonstrated that a 3-minute application of citric acid (pH = 1.0) to the root surface after scaling and root planing demineralized the outer root surface, opened the dentinal tubules, and exposed collagen fibers. Scaling and root planing alone left the surface with a smear layer, scattered islands of cementum, and no collagen fibers or exposed dentinal tubules.