Immediate Restoration of Implants Placed into Fresh Extraction Sockets for Single-Tooth Replacement: A Prospective Clinical Study
Roberto Cornelini, MD, DDS / Filippo Cangini, DDS, MS / Ugo Covani, MD, DDS / Thomas G. Wilson Jr, DDS
The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate the placement of transmucosal implants into fresh extraction sockets and their immediate restoration with temporary crowns. A series of 22 cases with a 12-month follow-up is presented. Twenty-two patients (15 women and 7 men; mean age 39 years) who needed a single tooth replaced because of vertical or horizontal root fracture, caries, endodontic lesions, or periodontal disease were treated with immediate postextraction implant placement. The implant was then restored with a screw-retained prosthetic restoration within 24 hours. Radiographic assessments were made at baseline and 12 months after implant placement. Clinical parameters, such as plaque score, mucositis score, probing attachment level, mucosal margin position, variation of gingival level, and variation of papilla position, were also measured at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. At 12 months, no implants had failed. Radiographic examination revealed mean bone resorption of 0.5 mm at 12 months compared to baseline. The mean variation of gingival level, compared to the neighboring teeth, was –0.75 mm. Probing attachment levels were 0.79, 0.45, and 0.54 mm at proximal, buccal, and lingual sites, respectively. The values for the mucosal margin position were 2.9, 2.2, and 2.4 mm at proximal, buccal, and lingual sites, respectively. Regarding variation of papilla position, according to Jemt’s index, 27 papillae presented with a score of 2 (61%) and 17 with a score of 3 (39%). An examination of oral hygiene and peri-implant soft tissue conditions at the 12-month follow-up visit revealed an overall frequency of plaque-carrying implant surfaces of 13%. Furthermore, mucositis (score 2) was not observed at any of the peri-implant units. Primary implant stability did not significantly increase over time. The immediate restoration of dental implants placed into fresh extraction sockets was shown to be a safe and predictable procedure. The success rate and radiographic and clinical results were comparable to those obtained following the standard protocol. Within the limits of the present investigation, immediate restoration of single-tooth implants placed in fresh extraction sockets can be considered a valuable option to replace a missing tooth. However, long-term clinical trials are needed to confirm the present results.
(Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2005;25:439–447.)