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Volume 33 , Issue 1
January/February 2013

Pages e16–e23

Impact of Interleukin 1 Gene Polymorphism and Smoking on Long-Term Stability Following Gingival Recession Treatment

Sasha Jankovic, DDS, MS, PhD/Zoran Aleksic, DDS, MS, PhD/Bozidar Dimitrijevic, DDS, MS, PhD/Paulo Camargo, DDS, MS, PhD/Barry Kenney, DDS, MS, PhD/Vojislav Lekovic, DDS, MS, PhD

DOI: 10.11607/prd.0823

Risk factors such as smoking, genetic factors, and tissue biotype play an important role in the etiology, predictability, and long-term stability of gingival recession treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of interleukin 1 (IL-1) polymorphism and smoking on the stability of gingival recession treatment after 1 and 3 years. All patients (n = 55) were treated for type I and II recession defects using a connective tissue graft. Clinical evaluations were performed, which included assessment of vertical recession depth, gingival inflammation, and clinical attachment level. A fingerstick blood sample was collected using specially provided DNA filter paper and mailed for processing in a laboratory using polymerase chain reaction–based methodology. The results indicated that 19 subjects were genotype positive (34.5%). Treatment of the localized recessions was effective and provided a similar amount of coverage in genotype-positive and genotype-negative subjects within smoking and nonsmoking groups after 1 year. In a 3-year period, nonsmoking patients with positive IL-1 genotype lost approximately 20% of the root coverage gained at 1 year and were almost four times more inferior compared with genotype-negative patients. Patients who smoked and had a positive IL-1 genotype lost approximately 35% of the gained root coverage. IL-1 polymorphism and smoking habit did not affect gingival recession treatment at 1 year but had a great impact on long-term stability. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2013;33:e16–e23.)

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