Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between clinical periodontal indices and stages of HIV disease as expressed by CD4 cell counts.
Materials and methods: A total of 60 individuals, both males and females, above the age of 18 years who were previously confirmed as HIV-positive were recruited and a detailed medical history was taken. To evaluate periodontal disease, a full-mouth examination was undertaken and, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. These HIV-positive individuals were classified into three different groups consisting of 20 individuals/group, according to their CD4 count: group A, individuals with CD4 count ≥500 cells/μl (mild immunosuppression); group B, individuals with CD4 count from 200 to 499 cells/μl (moderate immunosuppression); and group C, individuals with CD4 count <200 cells/μl (severe immunosuppression). Associations between the above indices and CD4 counts were examined.
Results: The mean plaque index of group B individuals were higher than the mean plaque index of group C which was statistically significant. The mean gingival index of group A, group B and group C did not show any statistically significant difference. The mean probing pocket depth and mean clinical attachment level in group A and group B individuals were higher when compared with group C individuals, which was statistically significant. However, no statistically significant difference was detected between group A and group B.
Conclusion: The individuals with severe immunosuppression (CD4 cell count <200 cells/μl) showed less periodontal disease progression than expected.
Keywords: cell count, gingivitis/epidemiology, HIV infections, periodontal diseases/complications, periodontal diseases/epidemiology, periodontal index