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Volume 18 , Issue 3
May/June 2003

Influence of Implant Design and Bone Quality on Stress/Strain Distribution in Bone Around Implants: A 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis

Shinichiro Tada, DDS, PhD/Roxana Stegaroiu, DDS, PhD/Eriko Kitamura, DDS, PhD/Osamu Miyakawa, BE, PhD/Haruka Kusakari, DDS, PhD

PMID: 12814310

Purpose: A 3-dimensional finite element analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of implant type and length, as well as that of bone quality, on the stress/strain in bone and implant. Materials and Methods: Two types (screw and cylinder) and 4 lengths (9.2, 10.8, 12.4, and 14.0 mm) of titanium implants were buried in 4 types of bone modeled by varying the elastic modulus for cancellous bone. Axial and buccolingual forces were applied to the occlusal node at the center of the abutment. Results: Regardless of load direction, maximum equivalent stress/strain in bone increased with a decrease in cancellous bone density. Under axial load, especially in the low-density bone models, maximum equivalent strain in cancellous bone was lower with the screw-type implant than with the cylinder- type implant. It was also lower with the longer implants than with the shorter implants. Under buccolingual load, equivalent stress/strain was influenced mainly by bone density. Discussion: This study confirms the importance of bone quality and its presurgical diagnosis for implant long-term prognosis. Implant length and type can also influence bone strain, especially in low-density bone. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cancellous bone of higher rather than lower density might ensure a better biomechanical environment for implants. Moreover, longer screw-type implants could be a better choice in a jaw with cancellous bone of low density. (INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2003;18: 357368)

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