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Volume 26 , Issue 1
January/February 2011

Pages 123–131

Histologic and Histomorphometric Evaluation of an Allograft Stem Cell–Based Matrix Sinus Augmentation Procedure

Aron Gonshor, PhD, DDS/Bradley S. McAllister, DDS, PhD/ Stephen S. Wallace, DDS/Hari Prasad, BS, MDT

PMID: 21365047

Purpose: Long-term success of dental implants has been demonstrated when placed simultaneously with or after a sinus augmentation procedure. However, optimal bone formation can be from 6 to 9 months or longer with grafting materials other than autogenous bone. For this reason, there is interest in any surgical technique that does not require autogenous bone harvesting, yet results in sufficient bone formation within a relatively short time frame. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated and compared bone formation following sinus-augmentation procedures using either an allograft cellular bone matrix (ACBM), containing native mesenchymal stem cells and osteoprogenitors, or conventional allograft (CA). Results: Histomorphometric analysis of the ACBM grafts revealed average vital bone content of 32.5% ± 6.8% to residual graft content of 4.9% ± 2.4% for the 21 sinuses in the study, at an average healing period of 3.7 ± 0.6 months. Results for the CA, in the same time frame, were average vital bone content of 18.3% ± 10.6% to residual graft content of 25.8% ± 13.4%. A comparison of ACBM and CA grafts, for both vital and residual bone contents, showed P values of .003 and .002, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: The high percentage of vital bone content, after a relatively short healing phase, may encourage a more rapid initiation of implant placement or restoration when a cellular grafting approach is considered. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2011;26:123–131

Key words: bone regeneration, osteoblasts, ridge augmentation, stem cells, tissue engineering

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