Eighteen-Month Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of Sinus Grafting with Anorganic Bovine Bone in the Chimpanzee
Bradley S. McAllister, DDS, PhD, Mark D. Margolin, DDS, Allan G. Cogan, DMD, Dave Buck, MS, Jeffrey O. Hollinger, DDS, PhD ,Samuel E. Lynch, DDS, PhD.
Maxillary sinus grafting procedures are currently the treatment of choice when the alveolar crest of the posterior maxilla is in close approximation to the maxillary sinus. The short-term histologic and radiographic healing following sinus grafting with natural bone mineral (Bio-Oss) in the chimpanzee has been evaluated. We have previously shown by histomorphometric and radiographic analysis that the percentage of vital bone area, the vertical height, and the density of new bone in the maxillary sinus was significantly greater with anorganic bovine bone compared to bovine Type I collagen matrix. The purpose of this in vivo study was to determine the bone mineral density (BMD) of the sinus grafts, the vertical height stability, the vital bone area, and the extent of anorganic bovine bone replacement 18 months postoperatively in 4 maxillary sinuses from 4 different animals. Radiographic analysis of computed tomographic scans taken at 1.5 years revealed an average BMD of 658 mg/mL, which was not significantly different from the values found at 6.5 months. The radiographic vertical height was maintained between the 6.5- and 18-month time points. On average, the grafts were found to have a height of 14 mm. Lateral wall biopsy specimens at 7.5 months were compared to those at 18 months. With the anorganic bovine bone treatment, the percentage of vital bone area increased from 62 ± 3% to 70 ± 7% and the percentage of natural bone mineral area decreased from 19 ± 14% to 6 ± 3%. The bovine Type I collagen matrix vital bone percentage at 7.5 months was 34 ± 21%. These results demonstrate that sinus grafting with anorganic bovine bone maintains radiographic evidence of density and height stability to 1.5 years. In addition, histologic evidence supports the hypothesis that anorganic bovine bone is replaced by vital bone. (Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1999;14:361–368) Key words: anorganic bovine bone, bone regeneration, sinus grafting