Transmission of Periodontal Disease–Associated Bacteria from Teeth to Osseointegrated Implant Regions
Shinichi Sumida, PhD, DDS, Kazuyuki Ishihara, PhD, DDS, Masataka Kishi, PhD, DDS, Katsuji Okuda, PhD, DDS
Purpose: The presence of periodontopathic bacteria is a risk factor for peri-implantitis. The present study examined colonization by periodontopathic bacteria and their transmission from periodontal pockets to osseointegrated implant sulcus. Materials and Methods: Plaque samples were collected from 105 sites in the 15 patients who participated in the study. Colonization by these bacteria was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture. The transmission of periodontopathic bacteria from periodontal sites of natural teeth to the implant sulcus was analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: The PCR detection rates of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were 80.0%, 53.3%, 46.7%, 60.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Colonizations by P gingivalis and A actinomycetemcomitans were statistically correlated with periodontal pockets and implant sulcus regions (P < .01). The PFGE patterns of the P gingivalis strains isolated from each patient were identical, but differed from those from other patients. The PFGE patterns of P intermedia strains were identical in 2 out of 3 patients. Discussion: These analyses indicated that there appeared to be transmission of P gingivalis and P intermedia from the periodontal pocket to the peri-implant region. Conclusion: Elimination of these periodontal pathogens from the patient’s oral cavity before administering dental implant treatment may inhibit colonization by these pathogens and reduce the risk of peri-implantitis.