Formation of Mineralizing Osteoblast Cultures on Machined, Titanium Oxide Grit–Blasted, and Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Surfaces
Lyndon F. Cooper, Takayuki Masuda, S. William Whitson, Paula Yliheikkilä, David A. Felton.
Altering osseous responses at implant surfaces to enhance bone is a current goal of clinical therapy. Cell culture may be used to investigate surface-dependent responses of bone-forming cells. In this report, the ability of primary fetal bovine mandibular osteoblast cultures to form a mineralizing matrix on machined, titanium plasma-sprayed, and titanium oxide grit–blasted surfaces has been compared. Immunohistochemical markers associated with bone formation were used to define the differentiated state of the formed matrix using qualitative light microscopy, and von Kossa staining was used to demonstrate the presence of mineralization within this matrix. Compared to either titanium oxide grit–blasted or machined surfaces, titanium plasma-sprayed surfaces displayed a unique pattern of mineralized matrix formation. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed that each surface accumulated unique organic and inorganic deposits during matrix formation, suggesting that surface-dependent physicochemical and biochemical conditioning of implant surfaces takes place. Surface topographic features of commercially pure titanium substrates can alter cultured osteoblast extracellular matrix formation and mineralization. Similar molecular and cellular assessment of in vivo responses to implant surface topography may contribute to improved engineering of endosseous implants. (Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1999;14:37–47) Key words: differentiation, osseointegration, osteoblast culture, surface topography