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Volume 23 , Issue 3
May/June 2008

Pages 502–512

Secondary Stability Assessment of Titanium Implants with an Alkali-Etched Surface: A Resonance Frequency Analysis Study in Beagle Dogs

Jakub Strnad, MSc, PhD/Karel Urban, Dr Med, PhD/Ctibor Povysil, Dr Med, Dr Sc Prof/Zdenek Strnad, MSc, PhD

PMID: 18700375

Purpose: This study was carried out to quantify the effect of an alkali-modified surface on implant stability during healing using an animal model. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 screw-shaped, self-tapping, commercially pure titanium dental implants, divided into a test group (implants with an alkali-modified surface or “biosurface”) and a control group (implants with a turned, machined surface) were inserted without pretapping in the tibiae of 3 beagle dogs. The resonance frequency analysis method was used to measure the implant stability quotient (ISQ) 0, 1, 3, 9, and 12 weeks after implantation. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 5, and 12 weeks, and the bone-implant contact (BIC%) was evaluated histomorphometrically. Results: The difference in the osseointegration rates (DISQ/Dhealing time) between the implants with alkali-modified surface (biosurface) and those with a turned, machined surface was evaluated as a mean of 0.843 ISQ/week within the first 9 weeks of healing. The mean increase in the secondary implant stability was found to be proportional to the mean increase in the BIC at healing period earlier than 5 weeks. Discussion: The characteristics that differed between the implant surfaces, ie, specific surface area, contact angle, and hydroxylation/hydration, may represent factors that influence the rate of osseointegration and the secondary implant stability. Conclusion: The alkali-treated surface enhances the secondary stability in the early stages of healing compared to the turned, machined surface, as a consequence of faster BIC formation. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23:502–512

Key words: alkali-etched surface, bioactive surface, dental implants, histometric analysis, resonance frequency analysis, secondary stability

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