Immediate Functional Loading of Implants Placed with Flapless Surgery in the Edentulous Maxilla: 1-year Follow-up of a Single Cohort Study
Gioacchino Cannizzaro, MD, DDS / Michele Leone, MD, DDS / Marco Esposito, DDS, PhD
Purpose: To evaluate success rates and complications of implants placed with a flapless technique and immediately loaded in fully edentulous maxillae.
Materials and Methods: Implants were placed in fully edentulous maxillae with a minimum insertion torque of 45 Ncm in underprepared sites to allow maximum stability at insertion using a flapless technique. Implants were immediately loaded. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, and edema evaluation. Stability of individual implants was assessed both manually and with Osstell at baseline and after 12 months of loading. A single sample t test was used with a significance level of .05.
Results: Thirty-three consecutively treated edentulous patients received 202 implants in the maxilla. In 10 patients, 53 implants were immediately inserted in fresh extraction sockets. At implant insertion, a flap had to be elevated to control the direction of the drill in 5 patients. Three implants in 2 patients did not reach sufficient stability and were left to heal for 45 to 90 days. All restorations (21 fixed prostheses and 12 overdentures) were delivered the same day of the surgery. Twenty-six patients experienced no or slight postoperative pain; 7 experienced moderate to severe pain. No or slight edema was recorded for 19 patients and moderate to severe edema for 14 patients. Two implants failed in 2 patients but were successfully replaced the same day they were removed. No major complications occurred. Five patients experienced biologic complications, eg, peri-implantitis; 10 experienced prosthetic complications. No prosthesis failed; however, 1 patient was unsatisfied with his overdenture and requested a fixed alternative. There was a highly significant difference (P < .001) between the stability at implant insertion and after 12 months.
Conclusion: Implants placed in the edentulous maxilla with a flapless procedure can be successfully loaded the same day of surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007;22:87–95
Key words: dental implants, edentulous maxilla, flapless procedures, immediate loading