Implant Marginal Bone Loss in Maxillary Sinus Grafts
Ran Herzberg, DMD / Eran Dolev, DMD / Devorah Schwartz-Arad, DMD, PhD
Purpose: The marginal bone loss (MBL) around implants placed in maxillary sinus grafts was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 70 patients who had undergone 81 sinus-graft procedures (total 212 screw-type implants). Complete radiographic records were available for 160 implants, which were used to calculate MBL (follow-up 6 to 56.5 months). Habits (smoking, bruxism), surgical phase parameters (preoperative residual bone, grafting material, implant characteristics, and complications), and prosthetic parameters (crown-implant ratio, marginal fit, and opposite-arch restoration) were recorded for each patient and statistically analyzed regarding MBL. Results: Cumulative survival and overall radiographic success rates were 95.5% and 83.7% for 4.5 years, respectively. Smoking, small implant surface area, and a delayed implantation approach were related to enhanced MBL, with mean MBL values of 0.24 mm/y (P < .011), 0.21 mm/y (P < .031), and 0.31 mm/y (P = .052), respectively. In residual bone of ¡Ü 4 mm, the relation to enhanced MBL was stronger (P < .018) for delayed implantation. Discussion: Survival and radiographic success rates compare well with other reports. However, most studies modify success criteria regarding MBL. Smoking may be a primary risk factor regarding implant success. Implants with greater surface area values could compensate for problematic bone characteristics (eg, in grafted maxillary sinuses). The effect of delayed implantation on MBL was surprising and may prompt simultaneous implantation whenever primary stability can be achieved. Conclusions: Smoking and implant surface area affected MBL in this patient population. Criteria for long-term implant success should be revised to a standard.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:103¨C110
Key words: implant success, implant survival, marginal bone loss, radiographic success, sinus graft