A Clinical Study of the Outcomes and Complications Associated with Maxillary Sinus Augmentation
Antonio Barone, DDS, PhD / Stefano Santini, DDS, MD / Ludovico Sbordone, DDS, MD / Roberto Crespi, MD / Ugo Covani, DDS, MD
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of complications in maxillary sinus augmentation surgery and the impact of complications on subsequent implant treatment in a patient population with severe maxillary atrophy scheduled for treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 70 patients (124 sinuses) with severe maxillary atrophy who underwent maxillary sinus augmentation. Sixteen patients were scheduled to have a unilateral procedure and 54 patients a bilateral procedure. Sinus augmentation was performed with autogenous bone alone in 93 sinuses; in 31 sinuses, a 1:1 mixture of autogenous bone and corticocancellous pig bone particles was used. Twenty-six of 124 procedures involved both sinus augmentation and autogenous block grafting for the treatment of severely atrophic maxillae. Results: The most common intraoperative complication was the perforation of the sinus membrane, which was observed in 31 sinuses (25%). Seven (5.6%) sinuses in 7 patients exhibited suppuration of the maxillary sinus. Five of the 7 patients with sinus infection were smokers, showing a prevalence of complications significantly greater in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Moreover, the use of an onlay bone graft in conjunction with sinus augmentation appeared to significantly increase the rate of infective complications. Infections were treated by drainage and the administration of systemic antibiotics. Two clinical cases showing persistent signs of infection required an endoscopic inspection of the maxillary sinus. Discussion and Conclusion: In the present study sinus membrane perforation was not shown to be a significant factor in the rate of implant complications. However, the combination of smoking and onlay bone grafting could significantly increase the rate of postoperative infection following sinus grafting.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:81–85
Key words: maxillary sinus complications, maxillary sinus grafts, maxillary sinus surgery