Influence of Platelet-rich Plasma Added to Xenogeneic Bone Grafts on Bone Mineral Density Associated with Dental Implants
Andres R. Sanchez, DDS, MS/Steven E. Eckert, DDS, MS/Phillip J. Sheridan, DDS, MS/Amy L. Weaver, MS
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the bone mineral density changes after bone regeneration therapy using xenogeneic demineralized freeze-dried bone graft (DFDBG) plus platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and DFDBG alone in 3-wall peri-implant defects in dogs. Materials and Methods: The mandibular premolars and molars of 9 adult hound dogs were removed surgically, and 90 sites were prepared for implant placement. Before implant placement, a total of 162 mesial and distal 3-wall peri-implant defects were surgically created. Defects were randomly assigned to three groups: DFDBG + PRP, DFDBG alone, and no treatment. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, and 3 months, and specimens were subjected to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) analysis with a peripheral dual x-ray absorptiometry densitometer. Results: The effect of treatment on BMD and BMC differed significantly by month of sacrifice (P = .030 and P = .035 for the month-by-treatment interactions, respectively). BMD differed significantly between peri-implant defects treated with DFDBG alone and untreated defects at 3 months (mean BMD of 0.6667 for DFDBG alone versus 0.5606 for untreated defects; P < .001). BMC also differed significantly between peri-implant defects treated with DFDBG alone and untreated defects at 3 months (mean BMC of 0.0276 for DFDBG alone versus 0.0236 for untreated defects; P = .001). No other pairwise comparison of the treatments within each month of sacrifice or at the overall treatment effect across all three months demonstrated significant differences. Discussion: PRP has been proposed as an autogenous source of growth factors, which may increase the speed and completeness of healing. This study did not demonstrate a significant improvement in BMD or BMC when PRP was combined with DFDBG. Defects where grafting material was used, either with or without PRP, did demonstrate slightly greater BMD and BMC than those left untreated. Conclusion: This study found that the addition of PRP to xenogeneic bone grafts did not significantly alter BMD or graft maturity levels in this animal model.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:526–532
Key words: bone mineral density, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, growth factors, guided bone regeneration, platelet-rich plasma