Histologic Analysis of Clinically Retrieved Titanium Microimplants Placed in Conjunction with Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation
Ole T. Jensen, DDS, MS, Lars Sennerby, DDS, PhD.
In this study, a new approach involving placement and subsequent retrieval of titanium microimplants was employed for the histologic investigation of the implant-tissue interface in conjunction with maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Nine patients scheduled for sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous placement of Brånemark implants were included in the study. After a sinus graft procedure and placement of implants, an additional microimplant was placed into the graft through the lateral wall of the sinus. At abutment connection, the microimplants were retrieved using a 3- or 5-mm-wide trephine drill. Six specimens were retrieved after 6 to 14 months from sites augmented with particulate radiated mineralized cancellous allograft. Another six implants were retrieved after 6 to 12 months from maxillary sinuses augmented with particulate autogenous bone grafts. The histologic analysis showed distinct differences between the two types of grafts. The sites with autogenous bone grafts displayed a normal morphology of bone and bone marrow, including formation of bone on the surfaces of the grafted particles and remodeling of newly formed as well as grafted bone. The bone was more mature after 11 to 14 months than at 6 months. The allografted sites had a mixed morphologic appearance of newly formed bone and nonviable allograft particles (about 75% of the total bone area) in loose connective tissue. Significantly more bone was found at the autografted than at the allografted implants. The use of autogenous bone for augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor resulted in a greater amount of viable bone surrounding the implant; however, simultaneous placement of implants apparently resulted in a low proportion of bone-implant contact after 6 to 14 months irrespective of graft type. (INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 1998;13:513–521) Key words: allograft, autograft, histology, osseointegration, sinus floor augmentation, titanium oral implants