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Volume 32 , Issue 6
November/December 2017

Pages 1315–1323

Plasma of Argon Increases Cell Attachment and Bacterial Decontamination on Different Implant Surfaces

Luigi Canullo, DDS/Tullio Genova, DDS, PhD/Hom-Lay Wang, DDS, MS, PhD/Stefano Carossa, MD, DDS/Federico Mussano, DDS, PhD

PMID: 29140375
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.5777

Purpose: This in vitro study tested the effects of argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) on different implant surfaces with regard to physical changes, bacterial decontamination, and osteoblast adhesion. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred twenty disks with three different surface topographies—machined (MAC), titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS), and zirconia-blasted and acid-etched (ZRT)—were tested in this experiment. Bacterial adhesion tests were performed repeatedly on a simplified biofilm of Streptococcus mitis. Bacteria were incubated in the presence of the samples, which were subsequently either left untreated as controls or treated with APDBD for 30, 60, and 120 seconds. Samples were then metalized, prior to the recurring acquisition of images using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Protein adsorption, surface wettability, and early biologic response were determined for both treated (120 seconds) and untreated implant surfaces. For depicting the eukaryotic cell behavior, preosteoblastic murine cells were used. Cells were conveniently stained, and nuclei were counted. Cell viability was assessed by a chemiluminescent assay at 1, 2, and 3 days. Results: On all treated samples, values of the contact angle measurements were lower than 10 degrees. The untreated samples showed values of contact angle of 80, 100, and 110 degrees, respectively, for MAC, TPS, and ZRT. The protein adsorption on TPS and ZRT was significantly increased after the plasma of argon treatment. However, no significant effect was noted on the MAC disks. The number and the cell spreading area of adherent osteoblasts significantly increased in all treated surfaces. Nonetheless, argon treatment did not influence the osteoblast proliferation and viability at different time points. Bacteria adhesion was significantly reduced, even after 60 seconds of argon treatment. Conclusion: Preliminary data showed that argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge disinfected the implant surface, with potential to promote osteoblast attachment and spreading, suggesting this may be a possible approach to clean a peri-implantitis–contaminated implant surface.

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