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Volume 20 , Issue 2
March/April 2005

Pages 245–252


Safety of Zygomatic Bone Harvesting: A Prospective Study of 32 Consecutive Patients with Simultaneous Zygomatic Bone Grafting and 1-Stage Implant Placement

Vesa T. Kainulainen, DDS/George K. B. Sàndor, DDS, MD/Robert P. Carmichael, DDS/Kyösti S. Oikarinen, DDS, PhD


PMID: 15839118

Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety of zygomatic bone harvesting and to determine whether a particulated zygomatic bone graft can be used simultaneously with 1-stage dental implants to reconstruct resorbed edentulous alveolar ridges. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 82 dental implants were placed in 32 patients. Particulated bone grafts harvested from the zygomatic process were used in 72 of the implant sites. The volume of bone harvested, intraoperative complications, morbidity, and complications on follow-up visits were recorded. Implant survival was examined prospectively. Results: As a harvest site, the zygoma yielded enough bone to complete the reconstructions in each case. The average zygomatic bone graft volume was 0.90 mL (SD 0.30). Perforation of the maxillary sinus occurred at 11 zygomatic sites. None of these perforations led to postoperative problems. No paresthesias or other complications were noted during follow-up examinations. Mean duration of postoperative swelling was 4.5 days, and patients used pain medication for a mean duration of 4 days. After the mean follow-up period of 26.9 months postplacement, 80 of 82 implants were osseointegrated (survival rate 97.6%). Discusssion: Zygomatic bone is an alternative donor site for bone harvesting with low morbidity. The bone graft yielded is sufficient for use in 2 to 3 implant sites. Conclusions: The zygoma was a safe intraoral bone harvesting donor site in this patient population. Further, the use of simultaneous particulated zygomatic bone grafts and 1-stage implant placement appears to be an effective procedure. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:245–252


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