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Volume 32 , Issue 1
January/February 2017

Pages e35–e46

Effects of Titanium Surface Microtopography and Simvastatin on Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Estrogen-Deprived Cell Culture

Premjit Arpornmaeklong, DDS, MDSc, PhD/Prisana Pripatnanont, DDS, FRCDT/Chonticha Chookiatsiri, DDS, MSc/Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, MD, PhD

PMID: 28095523
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.4969

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium surface topography and simvastatin on growth and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in estrogen-deprived (ED) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Human BMSCs were seeded on cell culture plates, smooth-surface titanium (Ti) disks, and sandblasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA)–surface Ti disks; and subsequently cultured in regular (fetal bovine serum [FBS]), ED, and ED-with 100 nM simvastatin (ED-SIM) culture media for 14 to 21 days. Live/dead cell staining, scanning electron microscope examination, and cell viability assay were performed to determine cell attachment, morphology, and growth. Expression levels of osteoblast-associated genes, Runx2 and bone sialoprotein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content, and osteocalcin in culture media were measured to determine osteoblastic differentiation. Expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were investigated to examine stimulating effects of simvastatin (n = 4 to 5, mean ± SD). In vitro mineralization was verified by calcein staining. Results: Human BMSCs exhibited different attachment and shapes on smooth and SLA titanium surfaces. Estrogen-deprived cell culture decreased cell attachment and growth, particularly on the SLA titanium surface, but cells were able to grow to reach confluence on day 21 in the ED-osteogenic (OS) culture medium. Promoting effects of the SLA titanium surface in ED-OS were significantly decreased. Simvastatin significantly increased osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs on the SLA titanium surface in the ED-OS medium, and the promoting effects of simvastatin corresponded with the increasing of BMP-2 gene expression on the SLA titanium surface in ED-OS-SIM culture medium. Conclusion: The ED cell culture model provided a well-defined platform for investigating the effects of hormones and growth factors on cells and titanium surface interaction. Titanium, the SLA surface, and simvastatin synergistically promoted osteoblastic differentiation of hBMSCs in ED condition and might be useful to promote osteointegration in osteoporotic bone.

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