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Volume 31 , Issue 1
January/February 2016

Pages 73–86

Bone Generation Profiling Around Photofunctionalized Titanium Mesh

Makoto Hirota, DDS, PhD/Takayuki Ikeda, DDS, PhD/Masako Tabuchi, DDS, PhD/Kaori Nakagawa, DDS/Wonhee Park, DDS, PhD/Manabu Ishijima, DDS, PhD/Naoki Tsukimura, DDS, PhD/Yoshiyuki Hagiwara, DDS, PhD/Takahiro Ogawa, DDS, PhD

PMID: 26800164
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.4036

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether photofunctionalization of titanium mesh enhances its osteoconductive capability. Materials and Methods: The titanium mesh (0.2 mm thickness) used in this study was made of commercially pure grade-2 titanium and had hexagonal apertures (2 mm width). Photofunctionalization was performed by treating titanium mesh with UV light for 12 minutes using a photo device immediately before use. Untreated or photofunctionalized titanium mesh was placed into rat femurs, and bone generation around titanium mesh was profiled using three-dimensional (3D) microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). A set of in vitro experiments was conducted using bone marrow–derived osteoblasts. Results: Photofunctionalized titanium mesh surfaces were characterized by the regenerated hydrophilicity and significantly reduced surface carbon. Bone generation profiling at week 3 of healing showed that the hexagonal apertures in photofunctionalized mesh were 95% filled, but they were only 57% filled in untreated mesh, particularly with the center zone remaining as a gap. Bone profiling in slices parallel to the titanium surface showed that photofunctionalized titanium mesh achieved 90% bone occupancy 0 to 400 μm from the surface, compared with only 35% for untreated mesh. Bone occupancy remained as high as 55% 800 to 1,200 μm from photofunctionalized titanium mesh surfaces, compared with less than 20% for untreated mesh. In vitro, photofunctionalized titanium mesh expedited and enhanced attachment and spread of osteoblasts, and increased ALP activity and the rate of mineralization. Conclusion: This study may provide novel and advanced metrics describing the osteoconductive property of photofunctionalized titanium mesh. Specifically, photofunctionalization not only increased the breadth, but also the 3D range, of osteoconductivity of titanium mesh, enabling space-filling and far-reaching osteoconductivity. Further translational and clinical studies are warranted to establish photofunctionalized titanium mesh as a novel clinical tool for better bone regeneration and augmentation.

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