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Volume 29 , Issue 6
November/December 2014

Pages 1264–1270


Assessment of the Correlation Between Implant Stability and Bone Density by Computed Tomography and Resonance Frequency Analysis in Fresh Cadavers

Jean-Christophe Coutant, DDS, PhD/Vincent Seguela, DDS/Laurent Hauret, MD/Philippe Caix, MD, PhD/Bruno Ella, DDS, PhD


PMID: 25397790
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.2607

Purpose: Because of the immediate loading implant process, clinicians must consider implant primary stability issues before initiating surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the bone density assessed by computed tomography (CT) images and the primary stability of two implant designs, as determined by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Materials and Methods: Sixty implants (30 NobelActive, 30 NobelSpeedy [Nobel Biocare]) were placed in five totally edentulous fresh cadaver maxillae. Before surgery, CT images were analyzed and bone densities measured. Implant primary stabilities (measured in implant stability quotient [ISQ] units) were determined along the buccolingual and mesiodistal axes by RFA. Correlations were assessed using the Pearson correlation test. Results: Bone densities were similar near NobelActive and NobelSpeedy implants: 434.67 (± 220.53) versus 479.87 (± 209.05) Hounsfield Units (HU). Bone densities and NobelActive primary stabilities were highly correlated with ρ = 0.74 (P = .000) and ρ = 0.78 (P = .000) for the buccolingual and mesiodistal axes, respectively. An association was found between the 350 HU and 50 ISQ values, confirming good primary stabilities. For NobelSpeedy implants, no correlation was found regardless of the axis, with ρ = –0.07 (P = .72) (buccolingual) and ρ = –0.10 (P = .59) (mesiodistal). However, poor and good stabilities were observed in the anterior and posterior areas, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed variations in primary stabilities depending on the implant design. The primary stability of conical implants with a double-lead thread design (NobelActive) seemed bone density–dependent regardless of the area of the maxilla, whereas the primary stability of nearly parallel-wall implants with a classical thread design (NobelSpeedy) seemed dependent on anatomical morphology. These results raise questions about the specific roles of the implant shape and thread design depending on the bone density and alveolar morphology.


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