Perforation of the Sinus Membrane During Sinus Floor Elevation: A Retrospective Study of Frequency and Possible Risk Factors
Thomas von Arx, Prof Dr Med Dent/Ivo Fodich, DDS/Michael M. Bornstein, Prof Dr Med Dent/Simon S. Jensen, DDS
Purpose: To analyze the frequency of perforation of the sinus membrane during maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and to assess possible risk factors. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven cases of SFE performed with a lateral window approach were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical and radiographic variables potentially influencing the risk of sinus membrane perforation were evaluated and divided into patient-related factors (age, sex, smoking habit); surgery-related factors (type of surgical approach, side, units, sites, and technique of osteotomy); and maxillary sinus–related factors (presence and height of septum, height of residual ridge, thickness of lateral sinus wall, width of antrum, and thickness and status of sinus membrane). Results: The following factors presented with at least a 10% difference in rates of perforations: smokers (46.2%) versus nonsmokers (23.4%), simultaneous (32%) versus staged (18.5%) approach, mixed premolar-molar sites (41.2%) versus premolar-only sites (16.7%) versus molar-only sites (26.2%), presence of septa (42.9%) versus no septa (23.8%), and minimum height of residual ridge ≤ 4 mm (34.2%) versus > 4 mm (20.5%). These same parameters, except minimum height of residual ridge, also showed an odds ratio above 2. However, none of the comparisons reached statistical significance. Conclusion: The present study failed to demonstrate any factor that statistically significantly increased the risk of sinus membrane perforation during SFE using the lateral window approach.