Buccal Bone Resorption Around Posterior Implants After Surgery: A 1-Year Prospective Study
Toshio Takuma, DDS/Keiji Oishi, DDS, PhD/Tomofusa Manabe, DT/Satoshi Yoneda, DDS, PhD/Toshihiko Nagata, DDS, PhD
Purpose: This prospective study aimed to examine postoperative dimensional changes in the buccal bone and mucosa around single-stage implants placed in the posterior region. Materials and Methods: The dimensions of peri-implant tissue around screw-type implants placed in the posterior region were examined at surgery (baseline) and 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The lateral contour of the buccal bone and mucosa was horizontally measured at five vertical heights at 1-mm intervals (+1 to –3 mm from the implant platform) using custom-designed instruments. Bone resorption on the proximal sides was assessed on radiographs. Mucosal recession was measured on plaster casts of the dentition. Results: Sixty-six implants placed in 30 patients were examined. All implants were clinically osseointegrated and stable throughout the study period. The buccal bone exhibited horizontal resorption throughout the study period, even at the most apical height measured. Assessed at each height, thicker bone (> 2 mm thick) tended to exhibit horizontal resorption during the first 6 months after surgery. However, the bone resorbed horizontally by approximately 0.4 mm during the final 6 months, irrespective of its contour. Vertical resorption of the buccal marginal bone was approximately 1 mm during the period from 6 months to 1 year. The bone-retaining group at the 1-year time point was found to have thicker bone walls at baseline compared with the bone-loss group. The thickness of the buccal mucosa showed little change. There was no obvious correlation between buccal bone resorption and mucosal recession. Conclusions: The buccal bone exhibited both horizontal and vertical resorption over the year after surgery. The initial contour of the bone was significantly associated with bone retention or loss at 1 year. However, mucosal recession was not directly affected by buccal bone resorption.