Biologic Response to Titanium Implants with Laser-Treated Surfaces
Sergio Allegrini Jr, DDS, MSc, PhD/Marcelo Yoshimoto, DDS, MSc, PhD/Marcos Barbosa Salles, DDS, MSc, PhD/Ana Helena de Almeida Bressiani, PhD
Purpose: To examine the biologic response to titanium implant surfaces treated with a neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Materials and Methods: Sixty mini-implants made of grade 2 titanium were placed in the femora of 30 Wistar rats. Thirty implants had a machined surface and the other 30 had surfaces that were roughened by laser treatment. The animals were subdivided into three groups according to bone repair periods of 15, 30, and 60 days. The samples were observed under light and electron scanning microscopes and analyzed with the Student t test. Results: Formation of new bone trabeculae toward the surface was apparent for the laser-treated implants at 15 days. Thin layers of bone matrix in intimate contact with the surface in the area of the central screw threads were observed, indicating high biocompatibility. Similar results were seen with machined implants after 30 days. A significant difference in bone formation was observed between the implant types at 15 days. Conclusion: Bone-to-implant contact was better on the surfaces subjected to laser treatment than on the machined titanium implants. The development of new laser treatments, which promote alterations in the surface energy as well as in the macro- and microstructures of titanium, may lead to improved bone-to-implant contact and thus better outcomes.