Effect of Proline-Rich Synthetic Peptide–Coated Titanium Implants on Bone Healing in a Rabbit Model
Christiane Petzold, MSc/Marta Monjo, PhD/Marina Rubert, MSc/Finn P. Reinholt, MD, PhD/Manuel Gomez-Florit, MSc/Joana Maria Ramis, PhD/Jan Eirik Ellingsen, DDS, PhD/S. Petter Lyngstadaas, DDS, PhD
Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of a designed proline-rich synthetic peptide to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and biomineralization in vitro. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the osseointegration capacity of titanium (Ti) implants coated with these peptides in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods: Four calibrated defects were prepared in the tibiae of three New Zealand rabbits, and the defects were randomized into a test group (peptide-modified machined Ti implant) and a control group (unmodified machined Ti implant). The performance in vivo was investigated after 4 weeks of implantation by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of bone and inflammatory markers, microcomputed tomographic analysis of mineralized bone, and histologic examination. Results: The peptides adsorbed in agglomerates on Ti and underwent a change in secondary structure upon adsorption, which induced an increase in surface wettability. Gene expression markers indicated that peptide-coated Ti implants had significantly decreased mRNA levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. A trend toward increased osteocalcin in the peri-implant bone tissue was also seen. Bone morphometric and histologic parameters did not show significant differences, although the peptide group showed a higher percentage of new bone histologically. Conclusions: Proline-rich peptides have potential as a biocompatible coating for promoting osseointegration of Ti implants by reducing bone resorption.