Biocompatibility and Microstructural Analysis of Osteopromotive Property of Allogenic Demineralized Dentin Matrix
Neema Bakhshalian, DDS, PhD/Shirin Hooshmand, PhD/Sara C. Campbell, PhD/Jeong-Su Kim, PhD/Kenneth Brummel-Smith, MD/Bahram H. Arjmandi, PhD, RD
Purpose: Bone grafting materials and methods have been used to compensate anatomical limitations and improve ridge and sinus structure for implant placement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteopromotive property of allogenic demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) as a bone grafting material using micro-computed tomography and blood biomarkers. Materials and Methods: Two surgical bone defects were created on the skull of 30 female New Zealand White rabbits. Experimental defects in 24 rabbits were filled with allogenic DDM applying guided bone regeneration technique, while the control defects were covered by membrane without receiving the graft. In the remaining six rabbits, both defects were left empty and these rabbits served as control for blood biomarkers. The 24 experimental rabbits were sacrificed after 15, 30, 60, and 90 days (n = 6 at each time point). Blood samples were collected from all rabbits at the baseline, 48 hours postsurgery, and at each time point. Results: Bone thickness was significantly higher in the experimental group at all time points. Micro-computed tomography results showed increased bone mass and superior bone quality in the experimental group. At all time points except for 48 hours postsurgery, the white blood cell count was numerically higher in control rabbits compared to experimental rabbits, suggesting a lack of inflammation or infection due to allogenic DDM. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities were lower in both experimental and control groups at all time points in comparison to baseline values, which is indicative of either a lower rate of bone formation or bone turnover. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, allogenic demineralized dentin matrix significantly increased bone mass and improved bone quality without causing an inflammatory reaction or infection.