Essential Oils and Zirconia Dental Implant Materials
Afya Sahib Diab Al-Radha, BDS, MSc, MFDSRCPS, PhD/Charles Younes, MSc, PhD, DEA/Ban Sahib Diab, BDS, MSc, PhD/Howard F. Jenkinson, BSc, PhD
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of natural antimicrobial agents in reducing biofilm development on different titanium and zirconia dental implant materials in vitro using a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF). Materials and Methods: Contact angles and surface free energy were determined for all surfaces. Biofilms were grown on disks of polished partially stabilized zirconia, titanium blasted with zirconia, titanium blasted with zirconia and acid-etched, and polished titanium using a CDFF to simulate oral cavity conditions. Antimicrobials (cinnamon oil, clove oil, chlorhexidine gluconate, or 0.5% Tween 80) were pulsed twice daily to the biofilm to mimic application in the oral cavity. Samples were taken after 6, 24, and 48 hours. Serial dilutions were made and plated onto agar. Bacterial colonies were counted to determine colony-forming units/mL. Results: Treatment of different implant material surfaces with the various antimicrobial agents led to significant increases in wettability and free energy on all surfaces. All surfaces showed a remarkable decrease in bacterial adhesion in the first 2 days in a relatively similar manner, with significant reduction in most of them, particularly after 48 hours. Conclusions: Functionalization of different dental implant material surfaces with essential oils resulted in immediate and ongoing antibacterial and antiplaque activities, and this antibacterial effect was enhanced with increased plaque age. Differences in the type of material seemed to have little effect on bacterial adhesion after treatment with antimicrobial agents. Expansion of this work with in vivo studies and clinical trials would be valuable.