Internal Bone Temperature Change During Guided Surgery Preparations for Dental Implants: An In Vitro Study
Marco Migliorati, DDS/Leonardo Amorfini, DDS/Alessio Signori, PhD/Fabrizio Barberis, PhD/Armando Silvestrini Biavati, MD, DDS/Stefano Benedicenti, DDS
Purpose: The aim of this pig model study was to verify whether the use of devices (surgical templates) or procedures (flapless or flap) of guided surgery may cause a potentially pathologic increase of temperature during the bone preparation. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, pig ribs with mean cortical thickness of 1.90 mm were used. Open-flap and flapless guided surgery (experimental groups OGS and FGS) and openflap and flapless conventional technique (control groups OSS and OFS) were performed. Temperature changes were recorded at a distance of 0.5 mm from the final test osteotomy by 2 thermocouples at depths of 1.5 (point A) and 12 mm (point B). Data were collected from 80 measurements, 10 for each group. Results: A statistically significant increase of temperature was reported for the FGS and OGS groups considering the measurement at point A (mean Δt 4.81 degrees and 4.21 degrees, respectively). The measurement at Point B for the FGS group compared to the FSS group did not differ significantly for the 3-mm drill, nor did the OSS group with the 2-mm drill. Conclusions: Site preparation with surgical stents generated higher bone temperature than conventional drilling. However, this heat generation did not reach temperature levels dangerous for the bone.