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Volume 28 , Issue 5
September/October 2013

Pages 12861292

In Vivo Evaluation of Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics for Determining Implant Stability

Lindsey R. VanSchoiack, PhD/Veronica I. Shubayev, MD/Robert R. Myers, PhD/Cherilyn G. Sheets, DDS/James C. Earthman, PhD

PMID: 24066319
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.2779

Purpose: To test in a rat model whether quantitative percussion diagnostics provide reliable, reproducible indications of osseointegration. Materials and Methods: Titanium implants were placed in femurs of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats. Each animal was assigned to one of six groups defined by one of three time points (2, 4, or 8 weeks postplacement) and one of two treatments (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] inhibitor GM6001 or control). Percussion testing was conducted three times per subject at implant placement and before sacrifice at one of the time points. For each time point, there was an experimental group that received daily intraperitoneal injections of GM6001, and a control group that received no MMP inhibitor. The percussion data consisted of loss coefficient (LC) values that characterize energy dissipation. Statistical analysis was performed on the LC values for the two animal groups using the paired Student t test to assess differences as a function of time, and the independent t test to compare mean LC for the study groups at sacrifice (α = .05). Histologic evaluation using the osteogenic CD40 protein marker was also performed. Results: A nearly significant difference in mean LC at the 2-week time point was observed between the two treatments with the GM6001 group having the higher value (P = .053). There was a greater difference between the mean LC values for the 4-week GM6001 and control groups (P = .001). The histologic evidence for subjects in these two groups confirmed reduction of osteogenesis at the implant interface after administration of the MMP inhibitor. Conclusions: Lower control LC values relative to the GM6001 therapeutic group were observed, consistent with the effect MMP inhibition has on matrix remodeling at the implant bone interface. This finding in conjunction with histologic observations confirms that osseointegration can be monitored using percussion diagnostics.

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