Antimicrobial Peptide Coating of Dental Implants: Biocompatibility Assessment of Recombinant Human Beta Defensin-2 for Human Cells
Patrick H. Warnke, MD, DDS, PhD/Eske Voss, PhD/Paul A. J. Russo, MD/Sebastien Stephens, BSci (hons),PhD/Michael Kleine, PhD/Hendrik Terheyden, MD, DDS, PhD/Qin Liu, MD
Purpose: Artificial materials such as dental implants are at risk of bacterial contamination in the oral cavity. Human beta defensins (HBDs), small cationic antimicrobial peptides that exert a broad-spectrum antibacterial function at epithelial surfaces and within some mesenchymal tissues, could probably help to reduce such contamination. HBDs also have protective immunomodulatory effects and have been reported to promote bone remodeling. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of recombinant HBD-2 on the proliferation and survival of cells in culture. Materials and Methods: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human osteoblasts, human keratinocytes (control), and the HeLa cancer cell line (control) were incubated with recombinant HBD-2 (1, 5, 10, or 20 μg/mL). Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated via a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. Results: HBD-2 was not toxic in any tested concentration to hMSCs, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, or HeLa cells. Furthermore, proliferation of hMSCs and osteoblasts increased after treatment with HBD-2 at all tested concentrations, and keratinocyte proliferation increased when treated at 20 μg/mL. In contrast, HeLa cancer cells were not affected by HBD-2 as tested. Conclusions: HBD-2 is not only biocompatible but also promotes proliferation of hMSCs, osteoblasts, and keratinocytes in culture. Further investigation of HBD-2 functional surface coating of artificial materials is recommended.