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Volume 19 , Issue 1
January/February 2004

Pages 52–58

Interface of Unloaded Titanium Implants in the Iliac Crest, Fibula, and Scapula: A Histomorphometric and Biomechanical Study in the Pig

Dennis Rohner, MD, DDS/Andrew Tay, MBBS, FRCS/Sew Meng Chung, B Eng, M Eng/Dietmar W. Hutmacher, PhD, MBA

PMID: 14982355

Purpose: Prefabrication of free vascularized fibular flaps is a 2-stage procedure for the reconstruction of maxillary and mandibular defects. The delay between prefabrication and flap transfer is 6 weeks and depends on biomechanical stability and osseointegration of the implants. The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate implant stability by measuring the removal torque values (RTVs) at 3, 6, and 12 weeks and to compare the results with interface strength of the bone-implant surface in the fibula, the scapula, and the iliac crest under unloaded conditions. Materials and Methods: ITI implants (n = 108) with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface were placed in the fibula, the scapula, and the iliac crest of 6 Yorkshire pigs. Biomechanical, histologic, and histomorphometric results were collected at 3, 6, and 12 weeks, respectively. Results: Bicortical anchored 8-mm implants in the fibula (63.7 to 101.8 Ncm) showed RTVs similar to those of monocortical anchored 12-mm implants in the scapula (62.3 to 99.7 Ncm). The RTVs of monocortical anchored 8-mm and 10-mm implants in the iliac crest (19.1 to 44.3 Ncm) and the scapula (27.2 to 55.3 Ncm) were significantly lower. The bone-to-implant contact in the fibula at 3, 6, and 12 weeks (35.2%, 44.4%, and 46.8%, respectively) was similar to that in the iliac crest (24.2%, 44.2%, and 52.5%, respectively), but significantly lower than in the scapula (63.7%, 73.8%, and 74.2%, respectively). Discussion and Conclusion: Bicortical anchorage determined implant stability in the fibula, whereas interfacial strength seemed to define stability in the scapula. The quality and type of bone determined the bone’s response in terms of biomechanical press fit or biologic interface strength. INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2004;19:52–58

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