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Volume 28 , Issue 3
May/June 2013

Pages e161–e170.


Influence of Three Types of Abutments on Preload Values Before and After Cyclic Loading with Structural Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy


Luis Eduardo Butignon, DDS, MSc/Mariana de Almeida Basílio, DDS, MSc/Rodrigo de Paula Pereira, DDS, MSc/João Neudenir Arioli Filho, DDS, MSc, PhD


PMID: 23748335
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.2481

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of three types of abutments in the maintenance of screw joint preload before and after cyclic loading as well as to observe possible microdamage in the structure of the components using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Forty-five external-hex implants were embedded in epoxy resin, received their respective abutments, and were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15): (1) machined titanium (Ti) abutments; (2) pre-machined gold (Au) abutments; and (3) machined zirconia (ZrO2) abutments. The abutment screws were tightened according to the manufacturer’s recommended torque. Initially, a static bending test was performed using five specimens of each group to determine the load applied in the cyclic loading test. Thus, 10 specimens of each group were used to measure the reverse torque value (preload) of the abutment screw before and after loading. A cyclic loading (0.5 × 106 cycles; 15 Hz) between 11 and 211 N was applied at an angle of 30 degrees to the long axis of the implants. The group means were compared using analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = .05). Results: The reverse torque analysis before cyclic loading showed no significant difference among the groups (P > .05). After cyclic loading, all preload means decreased significantly. The lowest decrease in preload was observed in the Ti group, whereas the highest decrease was observed in the ZrO2 group, with a significant difference noted between them (P = .010). The Au group presented an intermediate decrease, with no significant difference compared to the other groups (P > .05). SEM images showed structural changes in the mating surfaces of the abutments after cyclic loading. Conclusion: The load application reduced the preload means significantly in all groups, and more significantly in the ZrO2 group. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:e161–e170. doi: 10.11607/jomi.2481


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