Surface Alterations of Several Dental Materials by a Novel Ultrasonic Scaler Tip
Hyon-Woo Seol, DDS, MSD/Seong-Joo Heo, DDS, MS, PhD/Jai-Young Koak, DDS, MSD, PhD/Seong-Kyun Kim, DDS, MSD, PhD/Seung-Ho Baek, DDS, MSD, PhD/Su-Young Lee, DDS, MSD, PhD
Purpose: To assess the effects of a recently developed ultrasonic scaler tip, composed mainly of copper, on the surfaces of several dental materials. Materials and Methods: Representative samples of dental materials, including titanium, type II gold, cobalt-chromium alloy, zirconia, and porcelain, were prepared. Three ultrasonic scaler tips of conventional metal (CM), carbon composite (CC), and copper alloy (CA) were prepared. To simulate ultrasonic scaling in an oral environment, 30 g of force was applied using a doublepan balance, and the scaler tip was allowed to move horizontally 5 mm for three consecutive cycles of 20 seconds each. The power of the scaler tip was set to intermediate according to the manufacturer’s advice. The surface morphology of each dental material was examined using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed through one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffé test. All values were considered significant when P < .05. Results: Surface alterations of titanium, type II gold, and cobalt-chromium alloy by the CM tip were much greater than those caused by the CC and CA tips. No alterations were created on the zirconia surface by the CM, CC, or CA tips. On the porcelain surface, surface roughness (Ra) induced by the CM tip was 1.86 and 1.72 times higher than that produced by the CC and CA tips, respectively (P < .001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the surface alterations induced by CC and CA tips on the surfaces of dental materials were comparable. Therefore, this novel ultrasonic copper alloy scaler tip may possibly be used for the maintenance of implant prostheses. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2012;27:801–810.
Key words: confocal laser microscopy, profilometry, surface alteration, surface topography, ultrasonic instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler tip