Alkali and Heat Treatment of Titanium Implant Material for Bioactivity
Ibrahim M. Hamouda, MSc, PhD/Enas T. Enan, MSc/ Essam E. Al-Wakeel, MSc, PhD/Mostafa K. M. Yousef, MSc, PhD
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate alkali- and heat-treated titanium implant material. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight square plates of commercially pure titanium were divided into three groups. Group 1 plates were left untreated, and groups 2 and 3 were subjected to anodization and alkali treatment for 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Treated specimens were then subdivided into three equal subgroups (a, b, and c), which were heat treated for 1 hour at temperatures of 500°C, 700°C, and 800°C, respectively. Changes in the crystalline structure were analyzed using x-ray diffractometry. Surface roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester. Selected specimens were immersed in a specially prepared simulated body fluid for 10 days. Calcium and phosphorous deposition on the specimens was detected using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Results: Increasing the alkali treatment period and heat treatment temperature positively affected surface roughness and formation of a bioactive sodium titanium oxide (sodium titanate) layer on the titanium surface, especially after heat treatment at 800°C. There was a significantly higher calcium deposition on specimens of group 3 in comparison with those of groups 1 and 2. The results of pH and ion concentration changes of the used simulated body fluid confirmed the results of energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Conclusion: Alkali and heat treatment of titanium implant materials created better treatment conditions for obtaining a bioactive implant material. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2012;27:776–784.
Key words: alkali treatment, bioactivity, heat treatment, implant materials, titanium