Leakage of Saliva Through the Implant-Abutment Interface: In Vitro Evaluation of Three Different Implant Connections Under Unloaded and Loaded Conditions
Cássio do Nascimento, DMD, MDSc, DMSc/Paola Kirsten Miani, DMD, MDSc, DMSc/Vinícius Pedrazzi, DMD, MDSc, DMSc/Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves, DMD, MDSc, DMSc/Ricardo Faria Ribeiro, DMD, MDSc, DMSc/Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria, DMD, MDSc, DMSc/Ana Paula Macedo, MSc/Rubens Ferreira de Albuquerque Junior, DMD, MDSc, DMSc
Purpose: Bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface, with consequent species harboring the inner parts of two-part dental implant systems, has been reported in the literature. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate bacterial leakage from human saliva to the internal part of the implants along the implant-abutment interface under loaded and unloaded conditions using DNA Checkerboard. Materials and Methods: Sixty dental implants—20 each of external-hexagon, internal-hexagon, and Morse cone–connection designs—and their conical abutments were used in this study. Each group was subdivided into two groups of 10 loaded and 10 unloaded implants. The assemblies were immersed in human saliva and either (1) loaded with 500,000 cycles at 120 N (experimental group) or (2) incubated in static conditions for 7 days at 35°C (unloaded control group). Results: Microorganisms were found in the internal surfaces of all types of connections. The Morse cone connection presented the lowest count of microorganisms in both the unloaded and loaded groups. Loaded implants presented with higher counts of microorganisms than unloaded implants for external- and internal-hex connections. Conclusion: Bacterial species from human saliva may penetrate along the implant-abutment interface under both unloaded and loaded conditions for all connections evaluated. Morse cone–connection implants showed the lowest counts of microorganisms for both conditions. External- and internal-hex implants showed a higher incidence of bacteria and higher bacterial counts after simulated loading. INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2012;27:551–560.
Key words: bacterial leakage, dental implants, DNA checkerboard, saliva