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Volume 26 , Issue 6
November/December 2011

Pages 11831192

Surface Modification and Its Effect on Attachment, Spreading, and Proliferation of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

Feng Zhang, DDS, PhD/Ying Huang, DDS, MDS/Xiaodong Li, PhD/Shifang Zhao, DDS, MD

PMID: 22167422

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to exploit potential methods of surface modification for improving the seal between the neck portion of a dental implant and the surrounding soft tissue. Materials and Methods: Titanium surfaces were modified by machining (SM-Ti group); machining and acid etching (AE-Ti group); or machining, acid etching, and depositing 4.5 collagen/hyaluronic acid (col/HA) polyelectrolyte bilayers (CHC-Ti group). These were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, scanning force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and quartz crystal microbalance measurement. The degradation behavior of the col/HA multilayer coating was measured. Next, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured on the different surfaces, and cell morphology and spreading were observed using fluorescence microscopy and a shape factor measurement. Cell proliferation was examined by fluorometric quantification of the amount of cellular DNA. Matrix formation of HGFs was determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression was analyzed via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Similar surface topology for these three groups was observable on a microscopic scale, and morphologic differences were apparent on the nanoscale. Both acid etching and col/HA deposition improved the hydrophilicity of the titanium surface, in contrast to machining alone. Each col/HA bilayer was about 5 nm thick. The col/HA coating degraded in about a week. Attachment and spreading of HGFs was better on the CHC-Ti surface than on the SM-Ti or AE-Ti surfaces. Moreover, the proliferation and differentiation of HGFs were greatly stimulated when cultured on CHC-Ti. Conclusion: In contrast to two control surfaces (one machined, one machined and acid-etched), col/HA treatment of Ti improved the attachment, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation of HGFs. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2011;26:11831192

Key words: coating, dental implant, implant neck, soft tissue integration, surface properties

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