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Volume 21 , Issue 5
September/October 2006

Pages 726–732

Insertion Torque and Resonance Frequency Analysis of Dental Implant Systems in an Animal Model with Loaded Implants

Bilal Al-Nawas, Priv-Doz, Dr Med, Dr Med Dent / Wilfried Wagner, Univ-Prof, Dr Med, Dr Med Dent / Knut A. Grötz, Univ Prof, Dr Med, Dr Med Dent

PMID: 17066633

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis of different implant systems in an animal model with loaded implants. Materials and Methods: Three types of Brånemark implants (machined MkIII, TiUnite MkIII, and MkIV) and 2 types of Straumann implants (sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched [SLA] and titanium plasma-sprayed [TPS]) were studied. Thirty-two implants of each type (n = 160) were placed in 16 beagle dogs. Maximum insertion torque values were recorded. After a healing period of 8 weeks, the implants were loaded for 3 months; the animals were then sacrificed. At placement, after healing, and at the end of the loading phase, resonance frequency analysis was performed and implant stability quotients (ISQs) were recorded. Results: Higher insertion torque values were seen for the conical MkIV than for the MkIII. No difference was seen between the Brånemark and Straumann implants on the basis of ISQ value at placement. ISQ and insertion torque values were lower for the cylindric Straumann implants than for the self-tapping implants. For all implant systems a significant decrease in median ISQ was observed, with a median decrease ranging from 3 to 6. ISQ values for self-tapping implants remained stable after loading, whereas the ISQ values for non–self-tapping cylinders decreased. The maximum insertion torque values for failed and successful implants were not significantly different. Significantly higher ISQ values at placement were seen for successful implants (P =.003). Based on this model for ISQ, a threshold of 65.5 was identified, with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 61% for prediction of implant loss. ISQ values at the start of loading were not predictive of implant loss in the loading period. Conclusion: Caution should be used when judging implant systems on the basis of resonance frequency analysis and torque measurement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:726–732

Key words: animal model, dental implants, insertion torque, primary stability, resonance frequency analysis

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