Share Page:

Volume 31 , Issue 3
May/June 2016

Pages 505–508

Guest Editorial: 1996 Sinus Consensus Conference Revisited in 2016

Ole Jensen, DDS, MS/Michael S. Block, DMD/Vince Iacono, DMD

DOI: 10.11607/jomi.2016.3.e

Twenty years ago, the 1996 Report of the Sinus Consensus Conference was published in this journal. At that time, an important reason for the conference was to validate a relatively new procedure and attempt to quantify scientific variables that impacted sinus floor bone grafting success. Scientific progress in the past 20 years has advanced this effort in the following five ways.

Materials. It has now been shown that noninductive materials with slow resorption profiles can work better at forming and maintaining bone than inductive materials such as maxillofacial or extremity autografts and allografts. This is a remarkable and counterintuitive conclusion to state. Therefore, the need for biologic enhancement with growth factors and morphogens may be limited.1–8

Technical Method. The second point of interest is the method of space creation. It appears that any method that elevates the sinus membrane and maintains space will lead to new bone formation. The Sinus Consensus Conference strictly reported on the use of the lateral approach via a Caldwell Luc antrostomy. Now, depending on available bone, a commonly used method is the transcrestal approach using osteotomes.9–19

Angled Implants. The third aspect to undergo change over the past 20 years is less need for sinus bone grafting for complete arch restoration in edentulous settings. This entails the use of angled implant placement, including the use of zygomatic implants. This generally four-angled implant method has sparked a revolution in fixed prosthodontics of the edentulous maxilla. Use of angled implants, pterygoid implants, and zygomatic implants avoids the need for sinus grafting altogether, yet they are able to restore posterior maxillary function with a fixed restoration on implants.20–29

Combined Sinus and Alveolar Grafts. The fourth change in thinking is alveolar manipulation in conjunction with sinus floor grafting to create orthoalveolar form, usually in partially edentulous settings. The need for an optimal crown-implant ratio similar to the dentate-crown root ratio is discredited biomechanically, but aligning alveolar restoration of the segmental alveolar bone continues to be thought of as favorable for gingival alveolar bone health. Thus, alveolar crest augmentation in conjunction with sinus floor manipulation continues to be employed to correct reverse or deficient crestal bone architecture, increase bone for osseointegration, improve emergence profile esthetics, and establish bolus deflection.30–43

Short Implants. The fifth alteration in thinking relates to the partially edentulous patient with missing molar or premolar teeth, either segmental or single missing teeth, with sinus proximity. A relatively small amount of available bone may be enough for the use of implants as short as 5 mm in height in some settings, obviating the need for sinus floor manipulation. Improved implant sizing and surface texture make single sites in the area of the sinus unique possibilities. An example is molar extraction followed by simultaneous placement of a short and wide-diameter implant. However, this area of interest has the least long-term evidence, particularly for posterior maxillary bone.44–51

Long-term studies have determined implant success in sinus floor bone graft settings. It remains uncertain, however, how much of a role sinus graft–directed osseointegration has compared with residual bone implant osseointegration. In fact, for a large proportion of cases, it has been reported that the sinus graft may not have been needed for long-term implant support.52–58 Bone has been shown to form in the sinus bone graft by migration from the sinus floor into an osteoconductive scaffold. Pluripotent cells in the sinus membrane also participate in bone formation such that the entire periphery of the graft consolidates in advance of the central portion of the graft. Inductive agents such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 accelerate this process by cell recruitment and local cell differentiation, but the graft still consolidates in a similar way. Despite the material used and the technique employed, the primary determinant of bone formation in the sinus floor is by early vascularization of the graft matrix.59–69

Space maintenance is required for sinus bone graft consolidation to occur. Though small rents in the membrane repair do not lead to failure of the graft, rents increase graft loss and decrease graft performance by reducing space. If the entire membrane is lost, space can be confined by a barrier membrane and still lead to graft consolidation.68–72

The minimum requirement for bone formation appears to be an intact membrane supported physically, such as by tenting of dental implants. In this setting, blood clotting alone is sufficient to form sinus floor bone and osseointegration of exposed implant threads.73–77

Implants passing through the sinus ungrafted and exposed do not cause sinus reactions of significance.78–80

Smokers have been shown to have poor wound healing and less successful sinus grafts, including higher rates of implant loss.81–84

Simultaneous implant and graft placement continues to be reported in the literature as a favorable treatment and is acceptable when mechanical fixation of the implant is possible.85–86

Immediate loading of sinus-grafted implants has been reported but is not as well documented.87–90

The early consensus of 1996 continues to be verified using a number of biomaterials, sinus membrane elevation methods, and loading protocols. In addition, avoidance of sinus grafting appears to be on the rise with the greater frequency of the use of short implants, angled implants, and zygomatic implants. The future of sinus grafting appears to be best considered for partially edentulous patients or in cases where orthoalveolar form is desired.

See online appendix containing the 1996 Report of the Sinus Consensus Conference.

Ole Jensen, DDS, MS

Michael S. Block, DMD

Vince Iacono, DMD


1. Del Fabbro M, Testori T, Francetti L, Weinstein R. Systematic review of survival rates for implants placed in the grafted maxillary sinus. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2004;24:565–577.

2. Froum SJ, Wallace SS, Cho SC, Elian N, Tarnow DP. Histomorphometric comparison of a biphasic bone ceramic to anorganic bovine bone for sinus augmentation: 6- to 8-month postsurgical assessment of vital bone formation. A pilot study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2008;28:273–281.

3. Froum SJ, Tarnow DP, Wallace SS, Rohrer MD, Cho SC. Sinus floor elevation using anorganic bovine bone matrix (OsteoGraf/N) with and without autogenous bone: A clinical, histologic, radiographic, and histomorphometric analysis—Part 2 of an ongoing prospective study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1998;18:528–543.

4. Froum SJ, Wallace SS, Elian N, Cho SC, Tarnow DP. Comparison of mineralized cancellous bone allograft (Puros) and anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss) for sinus augmentation: Histomorphometry at 26 to 32 weeks after grafting. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2006;26:543–551.

5. Testori T, Wallace SS, Trisi P, et al. Effect of xenograft (ABBM) particle size on vital bone formation following maxillary sinus augmentation: A multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical histomorphometric trial. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2013;33:467–575.

6. Jensen OT. Allogeneic bone or hydroxylapatite for the sinus lift procedure? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990;48:771.

7. Esposito M, Piattelli M, Pistilli R, Pellegrino G, Felice P. Sinus lift with guided bone regeneration or anorganic bovine bone: 1-year post-loading results of a pilot randomised clinical trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3:297–305.

8. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. The efficacy of various bone augmentation procedures for dental implants: A Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:696–710.

9. Boyne PJ. Analysis of performance of root-form endosseous implants placed in the maxillary sinus. J Long Term Eff Med Implants 1993;3:143–159.

10. Boyne PJ, James RA. Grafting of the maxillary sinus floor with autogenous marrow and bone. J Oral Surg 1980;38:613–616.

11. Boyne PJ, Marx RE, Nevins M, et al. A feasibility study evaluating rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1997;17:11–25.

12. Esposito M, Cannizzaro G, Barausse C, et al. Cosci versus Summers technique for crestal sinus lift: 3-year results from a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2014;7:129–137.

13. Jensen J, Sindet-Pedersen S, Oliver AJ. Varying treatment strategies for reconstruction of maxillary atrophy with implants: Results in 98 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994;52:210–216; discussion 216–218.

14. Pigache P, Anavekar N, Raoul G, Ferri J. Maxillary reconstruction for sinus lift complications with oro-antral fistula: The Le Fort I approach. J Craniofac Surg 2016;27:464–468.

15. Rosen PS, Summers R, Mellado JR, et al. The bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation technique: Multicenter retrospective report of consecutively treated patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1999;14:853–858.

16. Summers RB. A new concept in maxillary implant surgery: The osteotome technique. Compendium 1994;15:152,154–156,158 passim; quiz 162.

17. Summers RB. Sinus floor elevation with osteotomes. J Esthet Dent 1998;10:164–171.

18. Cannizzaro G, Felice P, Minciarelli AF, et al. Early implant loading in the atrophic posterior maxilla: 1-stage lateral versus crestal sinus lift and 8 mm hydroxyapatite-coated implants. A 5-year randomised controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2013;6:13–25.

19. Zitzmann NU, Sch.rer P. Sinus elevation procedures in the resorbed posterior maxilla. Comparison of the crestal and lateral approaches. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;85:8–17.

20. Aparicio C, Ouazzani W, Garcia R, et al. A prospective clinical study on titanium implants in the zygomatic arch for prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla with a follow-up of 6 months to 5 years. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2006;8:114–122.

21. Aparicio C, Ouazzani W, Hatano N. The use of zygomatic implants for prosthetic rehabilitation of the severely resorbed maxilla. Periodontol 2000 2008;47:162–171.

22. Bedrossian E. Rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla with the zygoma concept: A 7-year prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25:1213–1221.

23. Graves S, Mahler BA, Javid B, Armellini D, Jensen OT. Maxillary all-on-four therapy using angled implants: A 16-month clinical study of 1110 implants in 276 jaws. Dent Clin North Am 2011;55:779–794.

24. Jensen OT, Adams MW, Butura C, Galindo DF. Maxillary V-4: Four implant treatment for maxillary atrophy with dental implants fixed apically at the vomer-nasal crest, lateral pyriform rim, and zygoma for immediate function. Report on 44 patients followed from 1 to 3 years. J Prosthet Dent 2015;114:810–817.

25. Jensen OT, Cottam JR, Ringeman JL, et al. Angled dental implant placement into the vomer/nasal crest of atrophic maxillae for All-on-Four immediate function: A 2-year clinical study of 100 consecutive patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2014;29:e30–e35.

26. Maló P, de Ara.jo Nobre M, Lopes A, Ferro A, Moss S. Extramaxillary surgical technique: Clinical outcome of 352 patients rehabilitated with 747 zygomatic implants with a follow-up between 6 months and 7 years. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2015;17:e153–e162.

27. Maló P, de Araújo Nobre MA, Lopes AV, Rodrigues R. Immediate loading short implants inserted on low bone quantity for the rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla using an All-on-4 design. J Oral Rehabil 2015;42:615–623.

28. Maló P, Nobre Md, Lopes A. Immediate loading of ‘All-on-4’ maxillary prostheses using trans-sinus tilted implants without sinus bone grafting: A retrospective study reporting the 3-year outcome. Eur J Oral Implantol 2013;6:273–283.

29. Mattsson T, Köndell PA, Gynther GW, Fredholm U, Bolin A. Implant treatment without bone grafting in severely resorbed edentulous maxillae. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1999;57:281–287.

30. AlGhamdi AS. Management of combined ridge defect and osteotome sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement—a 36-month follow-up case report. J Oral Implantol 2009;35:225–231.

31. Bahat O, Fontanessi RV. Efficacy of implant placement after bone grafting for three-dimensional reconstruction of the posterior jaw. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2001;21:220–231.

32. Berberi A, Nader N, Noujeim Z, et al. Horizontal and vertical reconstruction of the severely resorbed maxillary jaw using subantral augmentation and a novel tenting technique with bone from the lateral buccal wall. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2015;14:263–270.

33. Cordaro L, Torsello F, Accorsi Ribeiro C, Liberatore M, Mirisola di Torresanto V. Inlay-onlay grafting for three-dimensional reconstruction of the posterior atrophic maxilla with mandibular bone. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;39:350–357.

34. Forna NC. Proprosthetic interventions in the posterior maxillary implant therapy. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2012;116:1192–1202.

35. Hansen EJ, Schou S, Harder F, Hjorting-Hansen E. Outcome of implant therapy involving localised lateral alveolar ridge and/or sinus floor augmentation: A clinical and radiographic retrospective 1-year study. Eur J Oral Implantol 2011;4:257–267.

36. Jensen OT, Cottam J. Posterior maxillary sandwich osteotomy combined with sinus grafting with bone morphogenetic protein-2 for alveolar reconstruction for dental implants: Report of four cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:e415–e423.

37. Schmitt C, Karasholi T, Lutz R, et al. Long-term changes in graft height after maxillary sinus augmentation, onlay bone grafting, and combination of both techniques: A long-term retrospective cohort study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2014;25:e38–e46.

38. Weingart D, Bublitz R, Petrin G, Kälber J, Ingimarsson S. [Combined sinus lift procedure and lateral augmentation. A treatment concept for the surgical and prosthodontic rehabilitation of the extremely atrophic maxilla]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 2005;9:317–323.

39. Jensen OT, Leopardi A, Gallegos L. The case for bone graft reconstruction including sinus grafting and distraction osteogenesis for the atrophic edentulous maxilla. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004;62:1423–1428.

40. Shibuya Y, Takeuchi Y, Asai T, et al. Maxillary sinus floor elevation combined with a vertical onlay graft. Implant Dent 2012;21:91–96.

41. Jensen OT, Cottam J. Posterior maxillary sandwich ostetomy combined with sinus grafting with bone morphogenetic protein-2 for alveolar reconstruction for dental implants: Report of four cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:e415–e423.

42. Jensen OT, Kuhlke KL. Maxillary full-arch alveolar split osteotomy with island osteoperiosteal flaps and sinus grafting using bone morphogenetic protein-2 and retrofitting for immediate loading with a provisional surgical and prosthetic procedure and case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:e260–e271.

43. Jensen OT, Kuhlke KL, Leopardi A, Adams MW, Ringeman JL. BMP-2/ACS/allograft for combined maxillary alveolar split/sinus floor grafting with and without simultaneous dental implant placement: Report of 21 implants placed into 7 alveolar split sites followed for up to 3 years. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2014;29:e81–e94.

44. Esposito M, Barausse C, Pistilli R, et al. Short implants versus bone augmentation for placing longer implants in atrophic maxillae: One-year post-loading results of a pilot randomised controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2015;8:257–268.

45. Felice P, Pistilli R, Barausse C, et al. Short implants as an alternative to crestal sinus lift: A 1-year multicentre randomised controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2015;8:375–384.

46. Khouly I, Veitz-Keenan A. Insufficient evidence for sinus lifts over short implants for dental implant rehabilitation. Evid Based Dent 2015;16:21–22.

47. Malmstrom H, Gupta B, Ghanem A, et al. Success rate of short dental implants supporting single crowns and fixed bridges. Clin Oral Implants Res 2015 Sep 22. doi: 10.1111/clr.12693. [Epub ahead of print]

48. Nedir R, Nurdin N, Khoury P, Bischof M. Short implants placed with or without grafting in atrophic sinuses: The 3-year results of a prospective randomized controlled study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2016;18:10–18.

49. Pistilli R, Felice P, Piattelli M, et al. Posterior atrophic jaws rehabilitated with prostheses supported by 5 x 5 mm implants with a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated titanium surface or by longer implants in augmented bone. One-year results from a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2013;6:343–357.

50. Taschieri S, Corbella S, Del Fabbro M. Mini-invasive osteotome sinus floor elevation in partially edentulous atrophic maxilla using reduced length dental implants: Interim results of a prospective study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2014;16:185–193.

51. Vandeweghe S, De Ferrerre R, Tschakaloff A, De Bruyn H. A widebody implant as an alternative for sinus lift or bone grafting. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011;69:e67–e74.

52. Cara-Fuentes M, Machuca-Ariza J, Ruiz-Martos A, Ramos-Robles MC, Martínez-Lara I. Long-term outcome of dental implants after maxillary augmentation with and without bone grafting. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016;21:e229–e235.

53. Cricchio G, Sennerby L, Lundgren S. Sinus bone formation and implant survival after sinus membrane elevation and implant placement: A 1- to 6-year follow-up study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:1200–1212.

54. Gabbert O, Koob A, Schmitter M, Rammelsberg P. Implants placed in combination with an internal sinus lift without graft material: An analysis of short-term failure. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:177–183.

55. Lundgren S, Andersson S, Gualini F, Sennerby L. Bone reformation with sinus membrane elevation: A new surgical technique for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2004;6:165–173.

56. Thor A, Sennerby L, Hirsch JM, Rasmusson L. Bone formation at the maxillary sinus floor following simultaneous elevation of the mucosal lining and implant installation without graft material: An evaluation of 20 patients treated with 44 Astra Tech implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007;65:S64–S72.

57. Riben C, Thor A. The maxillary sinus membrane elevation procedure: Augmentation of bone around dental implants without grafts—a review of a surgical technique. Int J Dent 2012;2012:105483.

58. Kelly MP, Vaughn OL, Anderson PA. Systematic review and metaanalysis of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in localized alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus augmentation. 2015 Nov 27. pii: S0278-2391(15)01565-7. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2015.11.027. [Epub ahead of print]

59. Lambert F, L.onard A, Drion P, et al. Influence of space-filling materials in subantral bone augmentation: Blood clot vs. autogenous bone chips vs. bovine hydroxyapatite. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:538–545.

60. Lambert F, Léonard A, Drion P, et al. The effect of collagenated space filling materials in sinus bone augmentation: A study in rabbits. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013;24:505–511.

61. Price AM, Nunn M, Oppenheim FG, Van Dyke TE. De novo bone formation after the sinus lift procedure. J Periodontol 2011;82:1245–1255.

62. Santarelli A, Colella G, Carinci F, et al. Expression of β-catenin and γ-catenin in maxillary bone regeneration. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2011;24:S107–S111.

63. Seo SJ, Bark CW, Lim JH, Kim YG. Bone dynamics in the upward direction after a maxillary sinus floor elevation procedure: Serial segmentation using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. Int J Nanomedicine 2015;10 Spec Iss:129–136.

64. Dai J, Rabie AB. VEGF: An essential mediator of both angiogenesis and endochondral ossification. J Dent Res 2007;86:937–950.

65. Dietrich EM, Antoniades K. Bone-vasculature interactions in the mandible: Is bone an angiogenic tissue? Med Hypothesis 2012;79:582–584.

66. Mouriño V, Cattalini JP, Roether JA, et al. Composite polymerbioceramic scaffolds with drug delivery capability for bone tissue engineering. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2013;10:1353–1365.

67. Srouji S, Ben-David D, Lotan R, et al. The innate osteogenic potential of the maxillary sinus (Schneiderian) membrane: An ectopic tissue transplant model simulating sinus lifting. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;39:793–801.

68. Block MS, Kent JN, Kallukaran FU, Thunthy K, Weinberg R. Bone maintenance 5 to 10 years after sinus grafting. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998;56:706–714; discussion 714–715.

69. Dasmah A, Thor A, Ekestubbe A, Sennerby L, Rasmusson L. Particulate vs. block bone grafts: Three-dimensional changes in graft volume after reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla, a 2-year radiographic follow-up. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2012;40:654–659.

70. Kalavrezos ND, Grätz KW, Warnke T, Sailer HF. Frontal sinus fractures: Computed tomography evaluation of sinus obliteration with lyophilized cartilage. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 1999;27:20–24.

71. Misch CE, Dietsh F. Endosteal implants and iliac crest grafts to restore severely resorbed totally edentulous maxillae—a retrospective study. J Oral Implantol 1994;20:100–110.

72. Muñoz-Guerra MF, Naval-Gías L, Capote-Moreno A. Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sinus lift, and inlay bone-grafting for reconstruction in the severely atrophic maxilla: A new vision of the sandwich technique, using bone scrapers and piezosurgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;67:613–618.

73. Ding X, Zhu XH, Wang HM, Zhang XH. Effect of sinus membrane perforation on the survival of implants placed in combination with osteotome sinus floor elevation. J Craniofac Surg 2013;24:e102–e104.

74. Karabuda C, Arisan V, Özyuvaci H. Effects of sinus membrane perforations on the success of dental implants placed in the augmented sinus. J Periodontol 2006;77:1991–1997.

75. Nooh N. Effect of Schneiderian membrane perforation on posterior maxillary implant survival. J Int Oral Health 2013;5:28–34.

76. Oh E, Kraut RA. Effect of sinus membrane perforation on dental implant integration: A retrospective study on 128 patients. Implant Dent 2011;20:13–19.

77. Cho-Lee GY, Naval-Gias L, Castrejon-Castrejon S, et al. A 12-year retrospective analytic study of the implant survival rate in 177 consecutive maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25:1019–1027.

78. Duttenhoefer F, Souren C, Menne D, et al. Long-term survival of dental implants placed in the grafted maxillary sinus: Systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment modalities. PLoS One 2013;8:e75357.

79. Moreno Vazquez JC, Gonzalez de Rivera AS, Gil HS, Mifsut RS. Complication rate in 200 consecutive sinus lift procedures: Guidelines for prevention and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014;72:892–901.

80. Malevez C. Sinus reactions to invasive surgery. In: The Sinus Bone Graft. Jensen, OT, ed. 2nd ed. Chicago: Quintessence 2006:115–125.

81. Peleg M, Garg AK, Mazor Z. Healing in smokers versus nonsmokers: Survival rates for sinus floor augmentation with simultaneous implant placement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:551–559.

82. Testori T, Weinstein RL, Taschieri S, Del Fabbro M. Risk factor analysis following maxillary sinus augmentation: A retrospective multicenter study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2012;27:1170–1176.

83. Zinser MJ, Randelzhofer P, Kuiper L, Z.ller JE, De Lange GL. The predictors of implant failure after maxillary sinus floor augmentation and reconstruction: A retrospective study of 1045 consecutive implants. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013;115:571–582.

84. Moraschini V, Barboza Ed. Success of dental implants in smokers and non-smokers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016;45:205–215.

85. Felice P, Pistilli R, Piattelli M, et al. 1-stage versus 2-stage lateral sinus lift procedures: 1-year post-loading results of a multicenter randomised controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2014;7:65–75.

86. Johansson LA, Isaksson S, Lindh C, Becktor JP, Sennerby L. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement using locally harvested autogenous bone chips and bone debris: A prospective clinical study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68:837–844.

87. Jensen OT, Cottam JR, Ringeman JL, Adams MW. Trans-sinus dental implants, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and immediate function for all-on-4 treatment of severe maxillary atrophy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;70:141–148.

88. Kuchler U, Chappuis V, Bornstein MM, et al. Development of Implant Stability Quotient values of implants placed with simultaneous sinus floor elevation— results of a prospective study with 109 implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2016 Jan 16. doi: 10.1111/clr.12768. [Epub ahead of print]

89. Halpern KL, Halpern EB, Ruggiero S. Minimally invasive implant and sinus lift surgery with immediate loading. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006;64:1635–1638.

90. Lee CY, Rohrer MD, Prasad HS, Stover JD, Suzuki JB. Sinus grafting with a natural fluorohydroxyapatite for immediate load: A study with histologic analysis and histomorphometry. J Oral Implantol 2009;35:164–175.

Full Text PDF File | Order Article


Get Adobe Reader
Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view PDF files. This is a free program available from the Adobe web site.
Follow the download directions on the Adobe web site to get your copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader.


© 2022 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc JOMI Home
Current Issue
Ahead of Print
Author Guidelines
Accepted Manuscripts
Submission Form
Quintessence Home
Terms of Use
Privacy Policy
About Us
Contact Us