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Volume 29 , Issue 2
March/April 2014

Pages 485–496

Using Growth Factors in Human Extraction Sockets: A Histologic and Histomorphometric Evaluation of Short-Term Healing

Nico Geurs, DDS, MS/Athanasios Ntounis, DDS, MS/Philip Vassilopoulos, DDS, DMD/Ubele Van der Velden, DDS, PhD/Bruno G. Loos, DDS, MS, PhD/Michael Reddy, DDS, DMSc

PMID: 24683578
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3408

Purpose: Ridge preservation protocols reduce crestal remodeling after tooth extraction. There is insufficient evidence on bone grafting in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB). The aim of this study is to evaluate healing of grafted and nongrafted sockets and the effect of PRP and rhPDGF-BB on early remodeling. Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients whose treatment plan included extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups. Group 1: collagen plug (control). Group 2: mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA)/β–tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug. Group 3: FDBA/β-TCP/PRP/collagen plug. Group 4: FDBA/β-TCP/rhPDGF-BB/collagen plug. At 8 weeks, a core was harvested from the center of 41 sockets. Histomorphometric analysis took place. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: ANOVA did not indicate statistical significance in age, gender, smoking, ethnicity, or race distribution. Significant differences in tissue distribution were identified between groups and between different thirds of harvested core. More new bone and amorphous organic matrix was noted in the control group. In sites where bone graft was combined with growth factors, the amount of residual particles was less than in sites where bone graft was used alone. Conclusions: Inclusion of bone replacement graft suppressed new bone formation during early healing. Inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB produced less residual bone graft material, indicating more rapid turnover of bone graft. All treatment modalities achieved a significant amount of new vital bone at 8 weeks postextraction.

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