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Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry

Edited by Prof. Dr. Jean-François Roulet, Prof. Dr. Dr. Niklaus P. Lang, Prof. Dr. Palle Holmstrup

Official journal of the Academy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, the World Congress of Microdentistry, and the European Society of Preventive Dentistry

ISSN (print) 1602-1622 • ISSN (online) 1757-9996


Spring 2008
Volume 6 , Issue 1

Pages: 45-51
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Smoking, Tooth Brushing and Oral Cleanliness among 15-year-olds in Tehran, Iran

Yazdani, Reza / Vehkalahti, Miira M. / Nouri, Mahtab / Murtomaa, Heikki

Purpose: To assess smoking, tooth brushing and oral cleanliness and their relationships among 15-year-olds in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study based on World Health Organization criteria and the methods of the Second International Collaborative Study was carried out in autumn 2004 among 15-year-olds (n = 502) in Tehran. Data were based on a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical dental examination. Results: Smokers comprised 5% of the boys and 2% of the girls (p = 0.02). Smoking was more common among students of less-educated parents (50% vs. 30%, p < 0.05). Of all students, 26% reported twice-daily tooth brushing; those of higher socio-economic backgrounds and girls did so more frequently. Of the smokers, 11% reported no tooth brushing compared to 6% of the non-smokers. Oral cleanliness was good for 13%, moderate for 32%, and poor for 55%; the rates associated positively with female gender (p = 0.002), having higher-educated parents (p = 0.03), and reporting a higher frequency of tooth brushing (p < 0.001). Those students reporting twice-daily tooth brushing had less dental plaque and gingival bleeding (p ≤ 0.01) on both anterior and posterior teeth. In multivariable analyses, the best predictors for a good level of oral cleanliness were female gender (OR = 2.0) or twice-daily tooth brushing (OR = 1.7). Conclusion: Oral cleanliness and tooth brushing among 15-year-olds were at poor levels, particularly among boys. Such poor levels call for intensive attempts to enhance rates of twice-daily tooth brushing and to improve its quality. For this age group, anti-smoking purposes should be combined into school-based oral health promotion programmes as well.

Keywords: adolescents, oral cleanliness, smoking, tooth brushing

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